Adab, Volume 2, Number 1, June 1954

Adab was the literary magazine of the Pohanżay-i Adabīyāt va ʻUlūm-i Basharī (Faculty of Letters and Humanities) at Kabul University. It began publishing in May of 1953 as a quarterly publication. The word “adab” denotes both culture and literature in Arabic, Persian (Dari), and Pushto; and the magazine consists primarily of articles on literature and history, with a focus on the literature and cultural history of Afghanistan. The majority of the articles were written in Persian, though many were written in Pushto as well, and some were in English. A typical issue included articles on aesthetics and literary criticism, biographies, essays on major literary works, and submissions of original poetry and prose in traditional style. The inception of Adab followed the founding of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities, inaugurated in the autumn of 1944, by roughly a decade. Kabul University itself was founded in 1932. The Faculty of Letters and Humanities was the fourth faculty established in the university, following the Faculty of Medicine (1932), Faculty of Law and Political Sciences (1938), and Faculty of Science (1942).

Adab, Volume 2, Number 2, September 1954

Adab was the literary magazine of the Pohanżay-i Adabīyāt va ʻUlūm-i Basharī (Faculty of Letters and Humanities) at Kabul University. It began publishing in May of 1953 as a quarterly publication. The word “adab” denotes both culture and literature in Arabic, Persian (Dari), and Pushto; and the magazine consists primarily of articles on literature and history, with a focus on the literature and cultural history of Afghanistan. The majority of the articles were written in Persian, though many were written in Pushto as well, and some were in English. A typical issue included articles on aesthetics and literary criticism, biographies, essays on major literary works, and submissions of original poetry and prose in traditional style. The inception of Adab followed the founding of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities, inaugurated in the autumn of 1944, by roughly a decade. Kabul University itself was founded in 1932. The Faculty of Letters and Humanities was the fourth faculty established in the university, following the Faculty of Medicine (1932), Faculty of Law and Political Sciences (1938), and Faculty of Science (1942).

Adab, Volume 2, Numbers 3-4, March 1955

Adab was the literary magazine of the Pohanżay-i Adabīyāt va ʻUlūm-i Basharī (Faculty of Letters and Humanities) at Kabul University. It began publishing in May of 1953 as a quarterly publication. The word “adab” denotes both culture and literature in Arabic, Persian (Dari), and Pushto; and the magazine consists primarily of articles on literature and history, with a focus on the literature and cultural history of Afghanistan. The majority of the articles were written in Persian, though many were written in Pushto as well, and some were in English. A typical issue included articles on aesthetics and literary criticism, biographies, essays on major literary works, and submissions of original poetry and prose in traditional style. The inception of Adab followed the founding of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities, inaugurated in the autumn of 1944, by roughly a decade. Kabul University itself was founded in 1932. The Faculty of Letters and Humanities was the fourth faculty established in the university, following the Faculty of Medicine (1932), Faculty of Law and Political Sciences (1938), and Faculty of Science (1942).

Adab, Volume 3, Number 1, June 1955

Adab was the literary magazine of the Pohanżay-i Adabīyāt va ʻUlūm-i Basharī (Faculty of Letters and Humanities) at Kabul University. It began publishing in May of 1953 as a quarterly publication. The word “adab” denotes both culture and literature in Arabic, Persian (Dari), and Pushto; and the magazine consists primarily of articles on literature and history, with a focus on the literature and cultural history of Afghanistan. The majority of the articles were written in Persian, though many were written in Pushto as well, and some were in English. A typical issue included articles on aesthetics and literary criticism, biographies, essays on major literary works, and submissions of original poetry and prose in traditional style. The inception of Adab followed the founding of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities, inaugurated in the autumn of 1944, by roughly a decade. Kabul University itself was founded in 1932. The Faculty of Letters and Humanities was the fourth faculty established in the university, following the Faculty of Medicine (1932), Faculty of Law and Political Sciences (1938), and Faculty of Science (1942).

Adab, Volume 3, Number 2, September 1955

Adab was the literary magazine of the Pohanżay-i Adabīyāt va ʻUlūm-i Basharī (Faculty of Letters and Humanities) at Kabul University. It began publishing in May of 1953 as a quarterly publication. The word “adab” denotes both culture and literature in Arabic, Persian (Dari), and Pushto; and the magazine consists primarily of articles on literature and history, with a focus on the literature and cultural history of Afghanistan. The majority of the articles were written in Persian, though many were written in Pushto as well, and some were in English. A typical issue included articles on aesthetics and literary criticism, biographies, essays on major literary works, and submissions of original poetry and prose in traditional style. The inception of Adab followed the founding of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities, inaugurated in the autumn of 1944, by roughly a decade. Kabul University itself was founded in 1932. The Faculty of Letters and Humanities was the fourth faculty established in the university, following the Faculty of Medicine (1932), Faculty of Law and Political Sciences (1938), and Faculty of Science (1942).

Adab, Volume 3, Number 3, December 1955

Adab was the literary magazine of the Pohanżay-i Adabīyāt va ʻUlūm-i Basharī (Faculty of Letters and Humanities) at Kabul University. It began publishing in May of 1953 as a quarterly publication. The word “adab” denotes both culture and literature in Arabic, Persian (Dari), and Pushto; and the magazine consists primarily of articles on literature and history, with a focus on the literature and cultural history of Afghanistan. The majority of the articles were written in Persian, though many were written in Pushto as well, and some were in English. A typical issue included articles on aesthetics and literary criticism, biographies, essays on major literary works, and submissions of original poetry and prose in traditional style. The inception of Adab followed the founding of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities, inaugurated in the autumn of 1944, by roughly a decade. Kabul University itself was founded in 1932. The Faculty of Letters and Humanities was the fourth faculty established in the university, following the Faculty of Medicine (1932), Faculty of Law and Political Sciences (1938), and Faculty of Science (1942).

Adab, Volume 3, Number 4, March 1956

Adab was the literary magazine of the Pohanżay-i Adabīyāt va ʻUlūm-i Basharī (Faculty of Letters and Humanities) at Kabul University. It began publishing in May of 1953 as a quarterly publication. The word “adab” denotes both culture and literature in Arabic, Persian (Dari), and Pushto; and the magazine consists primarily of articles on literature and history, with a focus on the literature and cultural history of Afghanistan. The majority of the articles were written in Persian, though many were written in Pushto as well, and some were in English. A typical issue included articles on aesthetics and literary criticism, biographies, essays on major literary works, and submissions of original poetry and prose in traditional style. The inception of Adab followed the founding of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities, inaugurated in the autumn of 1944, by roughly a decade. Kabul University itself was founded in 1932. The Faculty of Letters and Humanities was the fourth faculty established in the university, following the Faculty of Medicine (1932), Faculty of Law and Political Sciences (1938), and Faculty of Science (1942).

Adab, Volume 4, Number 1, June 1956

Adab was the literary magazine of the Pohanżay-i Adabīyāt va ʻUlūm-i Basharī (Faculty of Letters and Humanities) at Kabul University. It began publishing in May of 1953 as a quarterly publication. The word “adab” denotes both culture and literature in Arabic, Persian (Dari), and Pushto; and the magazine consists primarily of articles on literature and history, with a focus on the literature and cultural history of Afghanistan. The majority of the articles were written in Persian, though many were written in Pushto as well, and some were in English. A typical issue included articles on aesthetics and literary criticism, biographies, essays on major literary works, and submissions of original poetry and prose in traditional style. The inception of Adab followed the founding of the Faculty of Letters and Humanities, inaugurated in the autumn of 1944, by roughly a decade. Kabul University itself was founded in 1932. The Faculty of Letters and Humanities was the fourth faculty established in the university, following the Faculty of Medicine (1932), Faculty of Law and Political Sciences (1938), and Faculty of Science (1942).

Techniques for a Contemplative Way of Life

This edition is a compendium of five short texts intended for the religious edification of members of the clergy. The first work, with the title Ars et modus contemplativae vitae (Techniques for a contemplative way of life), deals with the most important articles of faith central to the contemplative way of life. The text is preceded by a series of captioned medallions containing images that illustrate the themes of the work. These illustrations were pictorial or schematic aids for meditation, as were two further plates depicting the names and attributes of God and scenes from the life of Jesus. The book also contains short treatises on meditation and the art of memorization, an excerpt from a handbook on preaching attributed to Saint Thomas Aquinas, and instructions on how to construct an arbor praedicandi (preaching tree), which concludes with a double-page woodcut illustration representing the rhetorical development of a sermon in the form of a tree. The edition was carefully planned to combine the method of printing using movable type with the use of xylographic prints. The woodcuts were printed on separate leaves and bound in at the beginning and end of the book. Using a muller (grinding stone), the woodcuts were transferred onto the dampened paper, which was rubbed onto the inked block with leather bundles. This technique damaged the reverse side of the print, which consequently was left blank. Often such prints were then pasted together to produce double-sided pages. By contrast, typographic printing in a press allowed both sides of the paper to be printed. The book shown here was produced in the workshop of Friedrich Creussner, a printer who was active in Nuremberg from the beginning of the 1470s to the end of the 15th century. Among his more than 140 printed editions, this is the only one to have survived in which he combined xylographic and typographic print methods. He may have already produced a Defensorium virginitatis Mariae (In defense of the virginity of Mary) in this manner in 1470, but that work has not survived.

Dance of Death

The Middle Rhenish Totentanz (Dance of death) originated around 1450 in Mainz. It derived from the Paris Danse de macabré, but its immediate model was a German version in the form of illustrated broadsheets. In its choice of characters, it is oriented towards the townsman; in the face of the threat of plague of epidemic proportions, it is Franciscan in its pious devotion to God’s mercy. It combines texts in character (each in eight lines of verse, consisting of the accusation of Death and the confession of his surprised victim) with pictures, each of which shows a Death figure and a living person who is emblematic of and criticized as the representative of a particular social class. This edition published in Heidelberg by Heinrich Knoblochtzer (1445‒1500) is the first appearance of this version of the Dance of the Death in printed book form. The motif of the forced dance is accentuated in the woodcuts by the eccentric gestures of the Death figures, their musical instruments (which vary from picture to picture), and the introductory illustration, which shows a four-piece band playing for dead dancers in a dance hall. The decorative initials of this first printing, of which only four copies are known to exist, come from the defunct printing shop of Johann Zainer, the first printer in Ulm. In the 18th century this copy was owned by J.N. Weislinger, a priest of Capell. It was then in the court library of the Elector Karl Theodor in Mannheim, before it came to Munich in the early 19th century.