January 27, 2016

United States. Northern Part

This manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1708 mainly shows the English colonies of Pennsylvania and New York as their geography was understood at that time. It encompasses the region stretching from Lake Michigan (Lake Illinois on this map) to the west, Ontario and Quebec to the north, western New England to the east, and Virginia and the southern Appalachian Mountains to the south. The map identifies the territories inhabited by many different Indian tribes and provides historical information about tribal conflicts and population transfers. It also shows lakes and rivers, sometimes offering both English and French names, as well as hills, mountains, waterfalls, offshore islands, and other geographical points of interest. Prominent bodies of water shown include Chesapeake Bay; the Potomac, Susquehanna, Delaware, Hudson, and Saint Lawrence rivers; and Lakes Superior, Michigan (Illinois), Huron, Erie, and Ontario (Frontenac). The map indicates many towns and cities in what later became the northeastern United States, including Philadelphia, New York, Albany, and numerous smaller nearby communities. Relief is shown both pictorially and by hachures. The map has watermarks and several holes and tears, especially along the folds and creases. The anachronistic title is from a manuscript label on the verso as it was originally mounted. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Coastline from Yorktown to Boston. Advances by the Army

Côte de York-town à Boston (Coastline from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, during the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments on the way to Boston. The initial march south, from June 10 to September 30, 1781, is shown by the yellow line from Providence to Head of Elk and Annapolis, Maryland, and then along Chesapeake Bay down to Williamsburg and Yorktown (camps 1‒40). The route of the supply train is represented by the green line from “Scott’s House” southward to Williamsburg. The flanking march of Lauzun’s Legion is shown by the red line from Lebanon, Connecticut, to Philipsburg, New York. Camps on the return march follow the green line from Williamsburg to “Spurrier’s Tavern” and continue along the yellow line to Providence and on to Boston. Camps along the red line from Princeton, New Jersey, to King’s Ferry, New York, represent the flanking march of Lauzun’s Legion on the return march. The title is from a manuscript label on the verso of the map as it was originally mounted. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

General Map of the Atlantic or Western Ocean, Drawn at the General Office of Naval Maps, Charts, and Journals and Published by Order of the Minister for the Service of French Vessels in 1786

Carte Générale de l’Océan Atlantique ou Occidental (General map of the Atlantic or Western Ocean) is a Mercator projection map created in 1792 by the French marine cartographic office under government order. It was made to serve the needs of French vessels. The map is a nautical chart that shows exact latitude and longitude in the Western Ocean (North Atlantic) down to the Equator, with the prime meridian running through Paris and all other longitudinal readings calibrated accordingly. Water depth is shown by soundings. This map may have been used by a particular ship on a voyage from France to the Caribbean, as a red line indicates a course from Brest to Fort-Dauphin (present-day Fort-Liberté, Haiti) over the space of five weeks. Numerous cities, towns, islands, and geographical features are indicated on both sides of the Atlantic, from eastern North America to the Caribbean and northeastern South America, and from Western Europe to West Africa. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Map of Louisiana and the Course of the Mississippi River, Based on a Large Number of Records, Including Those of Monsieur le Maire, by Guillaume de l'Isle, of the Royal Academy of Sciences

Carte de la Louisiane et du cours du Mississipi (Map of Louisiana and the course of the Mississippi River) was created in the early 18th century by the noted French cartographer Guillaume de L’Isle (1675–1726), famous for his relatively accurate maps of Europe, Africa, and North and South America. The map mostly shows the Louisiana Territory, centered on the course and watershed of the Mississippi River. It covers from the Great Lakes in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the south and the Rocky Mountains to the west and the Appalachian Mountains to the east. The map gives the names of numerous Indian tribes and confederations throughout this entire area, as well as indicates European forts, missions, mines, and occasional towns, including the Spanish city of Saint Augustine in Florida and Natchitoches, a French settlement on the Red River that was an important outpost for trade with Spanish Mexico. The map also shows the paths of a number of European explorers, including the Spanish conquistador Hernando De Soto from 1539-42, and it identifies several portages of the French voyageurs, who by this time had already traded and trapped throughout this region for more than a century. Relief is shown pictorially. The map has watermarks as well as several holes and tears, especially along the folds and creases. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

American Campaign, 1782

Amérique, Campagne 1782 (American campaign, 1782) is a compendium of manuscript maps, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, at the end of the Revolutionary War. The maps show the location of the camps of the army of the Comte de Rochambeau, during its march north from Williamsburg, Virginia, to Boston between July and December, 1782. The soldiers marched in four divisions, each a day’s march apart. Camps thus shown were occupied sequentially for four or more nights. Yellow rectangles on the map signify French troops; green rectangles signify American troops, red rectangles artillery. Most of the maps in this volume are oriented with north to the top. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

The Course of the Mississippi River, According to the Most Modern Accounts

Le cours du fleuve Missisipi (The course of the Mississippi River) shows the extensive course and watershed of the Mississippi River as well as eastern parts of North America, according to the latest geographical information available in the mid-1730s. The map highlights broad stretches of eastern North America from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi Delta. The map identifies New France, New England, and New Spain. It gives the names of lakes, rivers, and other points of interest. It labels some Native American settlements as well as European forts, missions, mine sites, and fledgling American cities. The region from eastern Canada to the Great Lakes and south to New Orleans had long been explored by French voyageurs, who had traded and trapped along the expanding western American frontier for more than a century by the time this map was made. The map highlights portages between river systems that were used by these frontiersmen. It also shows longer routes from Quebec through the Great Lakes and tributaries of the Mississippi River and eventually to New Orleans. Notes or “legends” provide additional information, such as the fact that the Mississippi River was “full of pelicans.” Relief is shown pictorially. The scale is given in three different kinds of lieues (leagues), an old French measurement that varied by degrees and time (very approximately, one lieu = three kilometers). The map was published in Amsterdam in 1737 by Jean-Frederic Bernard (circa 1683–1744), a French bookseller, printer, author, and translator. Bernard was from a French Huguenot refugee family; he mostly lived and worked in the Netherlands but published and printed in French. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.