Petrified Forest at Glacier Bay, Alaska

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.

View of Muir Glacier, Alaska

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.

The Course of the Mississippi River, According to the Most Modern Accounts

Le cours du fleuve Missisipi (The course of the Mississippi River) shows the extensive course and watershed of the Mississippi River as well as eastern parts of North America, according to the latest geographical information available in the mid-1730s. The map highlights broad stretches of eastern North America from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi Delta. The map identifies New France, New England, and New Spain. It gives the names of lakes, rivers, and other points of interest. It labels some Native American settlements as well as European forts, missions, mine sites, and fledgling American cities. The region from eastern Canada to the Great Lakes and south to New Orleans had long been explored by French voyageurs, who had traded and trapped along the expanding western American frontier for more than a century by the time this map was made. The map highlights portages between river systems that were used by these frontiersmen. It also shows longer routes from Quebec through the Great Lakes and tributaries of the Mississippi River and eventually to New Orleans. Notes or “legends” provide additional information, such as the fact that the Mississippi River was “full of pelicans.” Relief is shown pictorially. The scale is given in three different kinds of lieues (leagues), an old French measurement that varied by degrees and time (very approximately, one lieu = three kilometers). The map was published in Amsterdam in 1737 by Jean-Frederic Bernard (circa 1683–1744), a French bookseller, printer, author, and translator. Bernard was from a French Huguenot refugee family; he mostly lived and worked in the Netherlands but published and printed in French. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Various Encampments of the Army from Yorktown to Boston

Differents camps de l’armée de York-town à Boston (Various encampments of the army from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor. It was created in 1787 by French cartographer François Soulés (1748–1809), based on an earlier version from 1782. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched during the American Revolutionary War by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments. The initial march south, from June 10 to September 30, 1781, is shown by the white line, with two solid black borders. The route proceeds from Providence to Head of Elk and Annapolis, Maryland, and then along the Chesapeake Bay to Williamsburg and Yorktown (camps 1‒40). The route of the supply train is represented by the yellow line from “Scott's House” southward to Williamsburg. The flanking march of Lauzun’s Legion is shown by the red line from Lebanon, Connecticut to Philipsburg, New York. Camps on the return march follow the yellow line from Williamsburg to “Spurrier’s Tavern” and continue along the white line to Boston. Camps along the dashed line (red rectangles) from Princeton, New Jersey, to King’s Ferry represent the flanking march of Lauzun’s Legion on the return march. The map is hand-colored. The title is from the manuscript label that was on the verso of the map as it was originally mounted. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Eastern Part of Canada, Translated from English from the Map by Jefferys Published in London in May 1755

Partie orientale du Canada (Eastern part of Canada) is a hand-colored manuscript map by cartographer, author, and illustrator Georges-Louis Le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV. It was based upon an English map made by Thomas Jefferys (circa 1719–71), who was geographer to King George III and engraved and published many maps and atlases in the mid-18th century, particularly of North America. It covers the northeastern region from Montreal to Île du Petit Mecatina and southwest to Boston Harbor. The map prominently displays the eastern part of Canada, including the Gaspé Peninsula, Saint Lawrence River, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Nova Scotia, Bay of Fundy, and Gulf of Maine. It shows towns, forts, roads, harbors, rivers and lakes, Indian tribal territory, coastal islands, relief, and soundings in Northumberland Strait. It also outlines a planned road from Quebec to Fort Western, Maine. Several broken, colored lines highlight boundaries established by various treaties. The map includes two “Explications” at the top of the colored lines and hatching, and a table on the upper left comparing latitudes and longitudes from several earlier maps. Relief is shown pictorially. Scale is given in maritime leagues and in miles. Neptune is seen riding his chariot in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

City, Port and Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland

Ville, port, et rade de Baltimore (City, port and harbor of Baltimore) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, that depicts the harbor and environs of Baltimore, Maryland, towards the end of the Revolutionary War. The map was created by Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753–1815), a young French officer who accompanied the army of the Comte de Rochambeau to North America in 1780 and served on his general staff. Berthier later became a marshal in the French army and chief of staff to Napoleon. The map shows fortifications, troop encampments of Rochambeau’s army around Baltimore, batteries at the harbor entrance, and a ferry crossing the Patapsco River. It also shows Baltimore’s street layout at the time, as well as wharves, houses, and area farms. The map highlights channels, soundings, and shoals in surrounding waters, and shows roads to “Frederick Town,” “White Marsh,” and “Spurrier’s Tavern” (at the intersection of routes linking Baltimore, Washington, and Annapolis). Relief is shown by shading. The title is from a manuscript label, which was on the verso as originally mounted. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Partial Map of Boston Harbor to Show its Defenses

Plan d’une partie de la rade de Boston (Partial map of Boston Harbor) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1778, the third year of the American Revolution. It depicts Boston Harbor from Castle William Island to Point Alderton. The map shows the position of the French fleet under Admiral Comte d’Estaing in Boston Harbor, where the French ships had gone for repairs after an inconclusive engagement off the coast of Rhode Island with the British fleet under Admiral John Byron. It also highlights French batteries built on several outer harbor islands to protect the fleet, as well as a temporary hospital. A legend with a letter key identifies geographical points of interest and fortifications, as well as individual ships and their commanders. Originally accompanying the map was an extract from a memoir by one of Admiral d’Estaing’s officers. Relief is shown by hachures. The map has a watermark. Scale is indicated in toises, an old French unit measuring about 1.95 meters. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

United States. Northern Part

This manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1708 mainly shows the English colonies of Pennsylvania and New York as their geography was understood at that time. It encompasses the region stretching from Lake Michigan (Lake Illinois on this map) to the west, Ontario and Quebec to the north, western New England to the east, and Virginia and the southern Appalachian Mountains to the south. The map identifies the territories inhabited by many different Indian tribes and provides historical information about tribal conflicts and population transfers. It also shows lakes and rivers, sometimes offering both English and French names, as well as hills, mountains, waterfalls, offshore islands, and other geographical points of interest. Prominent bodies of water shown include Chesapeake Bay; the Potomac, Susquehanna, Delaware, Hudson, and Saint Lawrence rivers; and Lakes Superior, Michigan (Illinois), Huron, Erie, and Ontario (Frontenac). The map indicates many towns and cities in what later became the northeastern United States, including Philadelphia, New York, Albany, and numerous smaller nearby communities. Relief is shown both pictorially and by hachures. The map has watermarks and several holes and tears, especially along the folds and creases. The anachronistic title is from a manuscript label on the verso as it was originally mounted. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Coastline from Yorktown to Boston. Advances by the Army

Côte de York-town à Boston (Coastline from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, during the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments on the way to Boston. The initial march south, from June 10 to September 30, 1781, is shown by the yellow line from Providence to Head of Elk and Annapolis, Maryland, and then along Chesapeake Bay down to Williamsburg and Yorktown (camps 1‒40). The route of the supply train is represented by the green line from “Scott’s House” southward to Williamsburg. The flanking march of Lauzun’s Legion is shown by the red line from Lebanon, Connecticut, to Philipsburg, New York. Camps on the return march follow the green line from Williamsburg to “Spurrier’s Tavern” and continue along the yellow line to Providence and on to Boston. Camps along the red line from Princeton, New Jersey, to King’s Ferry, New York, represent the flanking march of Lauzun’s Legion on the return march. The title is from a manuscript label on the verso of the map as it was originally mounted. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

General Map of the Atlantic or Western Ocean, Drawn at the General Office of Naval Maps, Charts, and Journals and Published by Order of the Minister for the Service of French Vessels in 1786

Carte Générale de l’Océan Atlantique ou Occidental (General map of the Atlantic or Western Ocean) is a Mercator projection map created in 1792 by the French marine cartographic office under government order. It was made to serve the needs of French vessels. The map is a nautical chart that shows exact latitude and longitude in the Western Ocean (North Atlantic) down to the Equator, with the prime meridian running through Paris and all other longitudinal readings calibrated accordingly. Water depth is shown by soundings. This map may have been used by a particular ship on a voyage from France to the Caribbean, as a red line indicates a course from Brest to Fort-Dauphin (present-day Fort-Liberté, Haiti) over the space of five weeks. Numerous cities, towns, islands, and geographical features are indicated on both sides of the Atlantic, from eastern North America to the Caribbean and northeastern South America, and from Western Europe to West Africa. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.