Secretary of War Simon Cameron

Simon Cameron (1799‒1889) was a Pennsylvania newspaper editor and politician who served as the first secretary of war in the cabinet of President Abraham Lincoln. He was born in Maytown, Pennsylvania and orphaned at age nine. Despite limited education, he gained a position as an apprentice printer and gradually rose to become editor of the Bucks County Messenger. Using his position in the press as a springboard, he became active in Pennsylvania state politics and served in the United States Senate from 1845 to 1849. Originally a Democrat, he switched parties and was elected to the Senate as a Republican in 1856. Lincoln appointed Cameron to his cabinet in 1861, partly in recognition of his great role in delivering Pennsylvania for the Republicans in the election of 1860. He proved an ineffective secretary of war who had policy differences with Lincoln and was regarded by many as corrupt, and he resigned his position on January 14, 1862. He and Lincoln remained on friendly terms, however, and the president appointed him minister to Russia. Cameron remained in Saint Petersburg for less than a year before returning to Pennsylvania to resume his political and business activities. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1867 to 1877. Cameron is remembered for his definition of “an honest politician” as “one who, when he is bought, will stay bought.” The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts

Charles Sumner (1811−74) was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1851 as a member of the Free-Soil Party, which he had helped to found to oppose the extension of slavery into newly acquired U.S. territories. A forceful orator, Sumner campaigned tirelessly for the abolition of slavery. He gained particular fame in May 1856 when he was assaulted on the floor of the Senate by Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina, whose cousin, Senator Andrew P. Butler of South Carolina, Sumner had lambasted over southern efforts to extend slavery into the territory of Kansas. Sumner took years to recover from the beating he received from Brooks. Sumner remained in the Senate after the Civil War. During the Reconstruction era he favored a harsh policy toward the South and campaigned for the establishment of full equality and civil rights for emancipated slaves. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Abigail Fillmore

Abigail Fillmore (1798‒1853) was the wife of Millard Fillmore (1800‒74), the 13th president of the United States. She was first lady during Fillmore’s one term in office, from 1850 to 1853. Born in upstate New York, she was by profession a public school teacher. She had two children. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Caleb Cushing

Caleb Cushing (1800‒1879) was born in Salisbury, Massachusetts, the son of a shipmaster and merchant. In 1802 he moved with his family to Newburyport, Massachusetts, a town with which he had a lifelong association. He was educated at Harvard College and Harvard Law School, practiced law, wrote several books, and became a close associate of Daniel Webster, a prominent lawyer and future secretary of state. After several unsuccessful tries, Cushing was elected to the U.S. Congress in 1834, where he served four terms. In 1843‒44 he undertook a mission to China, where he negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia (1844), the first bilateral agreement between the United States and China. In addition to holding various state and local posts, he was attorney general of the United States during the presidency of Franklin Pierce, 1853‒57. Although Cushing was, for a Massachusetts politician, relatively sympathetic to the South and its position on the constitutionality of slavery, he backed Lincoln during the Civil War. In 1874 he was appointed minister to Spain by President Ulysses S. Grant, and he held that post until 1877. At different stages of his career Cushing was a Whig, a Democrat, and a Republican. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Senator Robert Toombs of Georgia

Robert Toombs (1810‒85) was a U.S. senator, Confederate cabinet member, and Confederate general in the American Civil War. Born in Georgia, he studied law in Georgia, New York, and Virginia, and in 1829 opened a law practice in Georgia. He was elected to the Georgia legislature in 1836, to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1844, and to the U.S. Senate in 1852. The son of a planter who had amassed a large fortune in land and slaves, Toombs supported the secession of Georgia from the Union. He was named secretary of state in the cabinet of President Jefferson Davis, but he proved unsuited for the job and resigned to become a general in the Confederate army. A political general with limited military skill or training, he was generally unsuccessful but performed creditably at Antietam (1862). He returned to Georgia after the war but, refusing to seek pardon, he was unable to vote or seek office, and thus was unable to revive his political career. He spent his last years ravaged by alcoholism and blindness. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Major General George B. McClellan

George McClellan (1826‒85) was one of four generals during the American Civil War to hold the post of general in chief of the armies of the United States, the others being Winfield Scott, Henry Halleck, and Ulysses S. Grant. McClellan was born in Philadelphia, graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1846, and served in the engineer corps during the Mexican War (1846‒48). He left the army in 1857 to work in the railroad industry, but returned when the Civil War broke out. After scoring successes in driving the Confederates from the region that would become the state of West Virginia, in November 1861 he replaced Scott as general in chief. In March 1862 he was placed in command of the Army of the Potomac. In that capacity he played the leading role in turning the army into a well-organized and disciplined fighting force. He came into increasing conflict with President Abraham Lincoln, however, over his reluctance to actually use this force in going on the offensive against the Confederacy and was relieved of command in November 1862. In the presidential elections of 1864 he ran as the Democratic candidate against Lincoln, but lost in a landslide, winning only 21 electoral votes (the states of New Jersey, Kentucky, and Delaware) compared with Lincoln’s 212. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Major General Henry Halleck

Henry Halleck (1815−72) was born in Waterville, New York. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1839, and served in the Mexican War of 1846−48. He retired from the army in 1854 to practice law, but after the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 he reentered the service with the rank of major general. He commanded the Department of the Missouri from November 19, 1861, to July 11, 1862, when he became general in chief of all the Union armies, a position he held until March 1864, when he was succeeded by General Ulysses S. Grant. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Major General Irvin McDowell

Irvin McDowell (1818−85) was a Union general in the American Civil War. Born in Columbus, Ohio, he graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1838 and fought in the Mexican War of 1846−48. Early in the Civil War he was a brigadier general at the head of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, and thus was in command of the Union army at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. He held several other commands during the war, and was promoted to major general for his outstanding performance at the Battle of Cedar Mountain in Culpeper County, Virginia, on August 9, 1862. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Major General Nathaniel P. Banks

Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (1816−94) was a lawyer who served as a member of Congress from 1853 to 1857 and was governor of Massachusetts from 1858 to 1861. When the Civil War broke out, he offered his services to the government and was made major general of volunteers. He commanded the Department of the Shenandoah in 1862 and the Department of the Gulf in 1863−64.  In the latter capacity, Banks led the Union forces at the siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana (May 22−July 9, 1863), which ended with the surrender of this Confederate stronghold. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Major General Benjamin Butler

Benjamin F. Butler (1818−93) was a Massachusetts politician and Union army general in the American Civil War. Appointed an officer largely for political reasons, he had a mixed record as a military commander. He earned an important place in history, however, for his actions during the war toward the people and territory of the South. In 1861, while serving as commander of Fort Monroe, Virginia, he made the decision, on his own authority, not to return to the Confederacy slaves fleeing into Union lines on the grounds that they constituted “contraband of war,” whose return would boost the Southern war effort. Abraham Lincoln later was to follow the same reasoning in issuing the Emancipation Proclamation. In early 1862, Butler commanded the Union land forces that retook New Orleans from the Confederacy, and from May to December of that year he was military governor of the city, which he ruled with an iron hand. After the war, Butler served as governor of Massachusetts and in the U.S. House of Representatives. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.