Holographic Will and Codicil of Jeanne Mance, Co-Founder of Montreal

Jeanne Mance (1606−73) was the first lay nurse to practice in Montreal, founder and first bursar of the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, and an iconic figure in the history of Montreal. She first arrived in Canada in 1641, inspired by her religious conviction to serve the settlers and the indigenous people by establishing a hospital. She oversaw construction of the Hôtel-Dieu, and made several journeys back to France to secure resources for the project. She deserves to be recognized as the founder of the city, along with the French military officer Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612−76), first governor of Montreal. In her will, presented here, she bequeathed her heart to the people of Montreal, and asked the hospital nurses to take care of her body. Her remains are in the crypt of the chapel of the current Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal. Established in 1645, the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal is the oldest hospital in Montreal. The will was drawn up by Bénigne Basset, (also known as Deslauriers, circa 1629−99), a notary, clerk of the court, and surveyor who arrived in Montreal with the Sulpicians in 1657.

Montreal Winter Carnival, February, 1884

In the late 19th century, the Montreal Winter Carnival changed the way winter was perceived in Quebec. It sought to attract visitors to the city in the heart of the winter, a season they had otherwise avoided. From 1883 to 1889, five such carnivals were organized. A smallpox epidemic caused a break in 1886 and the withdrawal of financing by the train companies caused a cancellation in 1888. Highly publicized, the carnival was attended by a large number of American tourists. Special trains were even chartered for the event. Discount train tickets were also offered. Many of the organizers of the carnival were recruited from among the members of various Montreal clubs, such as the Montreal Snow Shoe Club. Carnival activities included balls, masquerades, parades, shows, hockey, skiing, toboggan rides, curling, jousting, horseback riding, sleigh or snowshoe races, and speed skating. The Montreal winter carnivals gave rise to a wide variety of print productions: newspaper articles, greeting cards, postcards, programs, guides, and posters. This chromolithograph shows snowshoers in a torchlight procession down Mount Royal, the hill located in the center of the city. The Ice Palace was a fundamental part of the Montreal carnivals. Its height, architecture, and fantastic appearance amazed onlookers. Indeed, one of the highlights of the carnival was the attack on the palace by the clubs of snowshoers. As a leading symbol of the event, the Ice Palace is represented on almost all the printed productions about the carnival. In this picture, the palace is adorned with mica crystals to simulate the ice. The ice palaces of 1883, 1884, 1885, 1887, and probably 1889 were designed by leading architect Alexander Cowper Hutchinson and built at least in 1883 by his brother J.H. Hutchinson.

French Opera Theater, 1895−96 Season

Founded in Montreal in 1893, the professional troupe of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français (French Opera Theater) moved to the Théâtre Français (French Theater), a renovated and electrified auditorium, one year later. The new venue was located at the corner of Sainte-Catherine Street and Saint-Dominique Street. In a context in which Quebec still had very few local professional artists and where theatrical and musical repertoire was primarily Anglophone, comedies, dramas, and operettas of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français delighted the French-speaking Montrealers. Consisting of singers and actors from France, the troupe featured the baritone Vandiric and such prima donnas such as Madame Essiani, Madame Bennati, and Madame Conti-Bessi. It included 25 instrumentalists and 24 choristers. Its repertoire consisted of lyrical and dramatic performances. The 1895−96 season proved to be both the most ambitious and the most difficult, ending prematurely with a scandal. On the evening of February 12, 1896, after a long delay, a singer came onstage to explain to the audience that large amounts of pay were due to the artists and that consequently the scheduled performance of The Barber of Seville would not take place. The public and the press were indignant at the plight of the artists and collected the necessary funds to enable them to return to France. However, some artists chose to remain in Montreal and were among the masters who gradually gave way to local professional artists at the dawn of the 20th century.

Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition under the Patronage of His Excellency, the Governor General of Canada Will Take Place in the City of Montreal

This impressive poster of the Grande Exposition agricole et industrielle de la Puissance (Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition), held in Montreal in 1884, is more than two meters high. Dominated by the picture of the Montreal Crystal Palace, this monumental wood engraving was typical of the "mammoth posters" that were used in both Canada and the United States. The poster evokes the exceptional scale of the 1884 exhibition, which attracted a large number of visitors. These exhibitions took place during one week in August or September of each year. The word "puissance" (power) in the original title referred to the Dominion of Canada, created by the Act of Confederation of 1867. Grouped by specialty on the exhibition field, which was located in the Mile-End District, the exhibitions presented products that included livestock, implements, new machinery, scientific curiosities, and much else. In line with the European tradition, awards and prizes were given. In addition to the program, balloon trips, fireworks, horse races, and merry-go-rounds were offered. As a symbol of the British colonial power, the Montreal Crystal Palace was an adapted, small-scale replica of the famous Crystal Palace built in 1851 for the Great Exhibition in London. Built in 1860 according to the plans of architect John Williams Hopkins, the structure was first located to the south of Victoria Street, between Sainte-Catherine Street and Cathcart Street. In 1879, it was relocated in the quadrilateral formed by Bleury Street, Saint-Urbain Street, Mont-Royal Avenue, and Saint-Joseph Boulevard. A fire destroyed the structure in 1896. Agricultural and industrial exhibitions in Quebec subsequently moved out of Montreal, to the cities of Trois-Rivières, Sherbrooke, and Saint-Hyacinthe.

Back View of the Church of Saint-Eustache and Dispersion of the Insurgents

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

A Fortified Pass. Colonel Wetherall Advancing to the Capture of Saint-Charles

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

Passage of the Richelieu River by Night

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

Colonel Wetherall's Bivouac Shelter at Saint-Hilaire de Rouville

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

Front View of the Church of Saint-Eustache, Occupied by the Insurgents

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

Lhasa, Drepung Monastery from the East

This view of the Drepung monastery (also seen as De-Pung, De-p’ung, Debang, Drabung, Dabung, Brebung, or Brasbung in other sources), viewed from the east, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to W.W. Rockhill in his Tibet (1890), Drepung was the most populous monastery in Tibet. In The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1899), L.A. Waddell states that it was “the most powerful and populous of all the monasteries in Tibet, founded and named after the Indian Tantrik monastery of 'The rice-heap' (Sri-Dhanya Kataka) in Kalinga and identified with Kalacakra doctrine. It is situated about three miles west of Lhasa, and contains nominally 7,000 monks.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.