February 20, 2013

Parade at the Palace Square on the Occasion of the Wedding of Princess Isabel and the Count d'Eu

The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the parade celebrating the marriage of Princess Isabel, the daughter of Emperor Pedro II and Empress Thereza Christina Maria, with the Count of Eu on October, 15, 1864.

Princess Isabel, the Baroness of Muritiba and the Baroness of Loreto on the Veranda of the Princess’s Residence

The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. The Brazilian nobility is well-represented in the collection. This 1866 photograph by Marc Ferrez, one of the most celebrated Brazilian portrait photographers, shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II, on the balcony of her residence in Rio de Janeiro, Petrópolis. Seen from left to right are the Baroness of Muritiba, Princess Isabel, and the Baroness of Loreto.

Steam Engine "Kompaund" with a Schmidt Super-Heater

From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. Shown here is a Kompaund (Compound) steam locomotive of the Ab type, with a Schmidt superheater. The number between the coupler indicates Ab 132, produced at the Briansk locomotive factory in 1909—shortly before Prokudin-Gorskii took this photograph. These locomotives were among the most powerful produced in Russia in the early 20th century, with a top speed of 115 kilometers per hour. The driver stands at the entrance to the engine cab. The site of the photograph appears to be on the Urals Railway line between Perm and Yekaterinburg, although the precise location is not known. It is likely that the yellow rail car in the background was the one used by the photographer for his mobile darkroom. Prokudin-Gorskii used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. Some of his photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.

The Count d'Eu and Other Brazilian Officers who Took Part in the Paraguayan War

The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows Louis Philippe, the Count of Eu, a French prince who was the husband of Princess Isabel, and fellow officers in the Paraguayan War. It was taken in the Paraguayan village of Vila do Rosário on January, 13, 1870, two months before the end of war. The count is in the center, wearing a military dress uniform.

Lodging of Their Royal Highnesses Duke of Saxe and Luis Philippe: at the House of Major Brant

The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. The expedition visited the city of Diamantina, in the state of Minas Gerais, which was a center of diamond mining. The photographs taken by Riedel during this visit were used more than 20 years later by José Maria da Silva Paranhos Júnior, the Barão of Rio Branco and the father of Brazilian diplomacy, to illustrate the album Sights du Brésil, which was shown at the 1889 Universal Exhibition in Paris. A well-preserved example of Brazilian baroque architecture, Diamantina was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999.

Report on the Different Masses of Iron, Found in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes

Mariano Eduardo de Rivero y Ustáriz (1798–1857) was a Peruvian scientist, geologist, mineralogist, chemist, archaeologist, politician, and diplomat. After schooling in Arequipa, he was sent in 1810 at age 12 to London to study mathematics, physics, and languages. In 1817 he traveled to France to the École royale des mines de Paris to study mineralogy and chemistry. In France he met Joseph Louis Proust, Gay-Lussac, and Alexander von Humboldt. The latter became his mentor and, during the course of his travels in Europe, Rivero discovered a new iron-oxalate that he named humboldtine in the older man’s honor. In 1822 Rivero was hired on Humboldt’s recommendation by the Colombian government to direct the first mining school in Bogotá, assisted by several other young European scientists. They included the French mineralogist Jean-Baptiste Boussingault (1802–87), who had studied at the school of mines at Saint-Etienne and later moved to Alsace to work in asphalt mining. Rivero and Boussingault traveled through the northern part of South America in support of the scientific explorations of General Simón Bolívar. Presented here is “Memoria sobre diferentes masas de hierro encontradas en la cordillera oriental de los andes” (Report on the different masses of iron, found in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes), published in 1823, one of a number of articles on mineralogy on which the two men collaborated. It presents an analysis of the different types of iron ore found in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes Mountains near Santa Rosa, Colombia. The work is included in a compilation of Rivero’s work called Colección de memorias cientificas, agrícolas e industriales publicadas en distintas épocas (Collection of scientific, agricultural, and industrial papers published at different times), which appeared in 1857.