Jailhouse at Ouro Preto

The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The jailhouse in the gold mining town of Ouro Preto was constructed between 1784 and 1837. It served as a prison through the 19th century. In 1938, the building became the Museum of the Inconfidência, a Brazilian independence movement led by miners. The building was photographed by Augusto Riedel during an expedition into the interior of Brazil with the son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe. Various cities in the state of Minas Gerais were visited during the expedition, the most famous of which was Ouro Preto. Known for its baroque facades, the city was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.

Portrait of Author Ernest Hemingway Posing with Sailfish

Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961) was an American writer who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois, and began his writing career as a newspaperman in Kansas City at the age of 17. His experiences in Europe informed his early novels. Hemingway served with a volunteer ambulance unit in the Alps in World War I, lived in Paris for much of the 1920s, and reported on the Greek Revolution and the civil war in Spain. His sense of these events resulted in The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929), and, some think his greatest novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). Hemingway divided his time in much of the 1930s and 1940s between Key West, Florida and Cuba. He was an avid outdoorsman whose interest in such sports as hunting, fishing, and bull fighting were reflected in his novels and short stories. In Key West and Cuba, Hemingway discovered a passion for big-game fishing that would inspire him for the remainder of his life and that prompted his outstanding short novel, The Old Man and the Sea (1951). This photograph, taken in Key West in the 1940s, shows Hemingway with a sailfish he had caught. Many of his novels, short stories, and his nonfiction work are classics of American literature, distinctive for their understatement, spare prose, and authentic characterization.

Brief Anthropology, or the Science of Man

Naiden P. Stoianov (1830–76) was the author of several Bulgarian textbooks, but he is better known as one of the leaders of the uprising by the Bulgarians against Ottoman rule in April 1876. Also known as the Koprivshtitsa uprising after one of the towns in which the insurrection was centered, the April uprising was brutally crushed by the Ottomans. Stoianov died in prison after being tortured. He was a student of both Neofit Rilski and Naiden Gerov, leading writers and luminaries in the Bulgarian National Revival of the 19th century. His Brief Anthropology, or the Science of Man, published in 1856, marked the beginning of the development of a Bulgarian scientific terminology, and in particular of words describing the human body.

Kekin's Gymnasium. View from the Bell Tower of the Church of All Saints. Rostov Velikii

In 1911, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled to Rostov the Great (Velikii), located some 210 kilometers northeast of Moscow. At the center of this view is the renowned Kekin Gimnaziia (high school), named in honor of Aleksei Kekin, a Saint Petersburg merchant who left his fortune to Rostov with the stipulation that funds be used to establish a high school. Thanks to the gift, the town, whose population at the time was around 15,000, gained a major educational institution that exists to this day. Planning for the school began in 1905, and the first classes opened in 1907. The design competition for the main building (1908–10) was won by Moscow architect Pavel Trubnikov, who adopted a neoclassical revival style. One of the school’s innovative features was an astronomical observatory, which opened in 1912. Originally intended for male students, the school soon accepted young women also. Visible on the right is a wooden chapel. (The administration declined to build an Orthodox chapel on the premises.) Prokudin-Gorskii used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. Some of his photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.