Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. Window from the Tomb of the Saint Looking out into the Gallery Called a Ziaretga

This photograph of the Khodzha Abdu-Derun mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Derun memorial complex was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word derun (inner) added to signify its location within Samarkand and to distinguish it from another complex commemorating the sage located just beyond the city. The original domed mausoleum, erected perhaps as early as the 12th century, was expanded with a pilgrimage shrine in the 15th century. The complex also included a courtyard pool, a mosque, and a separate entrance portal. The caption states that this view, taken through a window in the burial chamber, looks out on a gallery connected to a ziaratkhana (a vestibule for ritual prayer at a burial shrine). The robed man in the gallery is wearing a white turban, often a symbol of spiritual authority. In the background, a wooden gate leads to a sunlit yard.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Sheikh Burkhaneddin Kilich. Rukhabad. General View

This photograph of the Rukhabad mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. In the center of this view is the mausoleum known as Rukhabad (“dwelling of the soul”), a centralized domed structure probably built in the 1380s for the sage and mystic Sheikh Burkhaneddin Sagardzhi, a prominent Islamic figure in Beijing, where he died. He had requested of his son that his body be returned to Samarkand for burial at the mazar (mausoleum) of Sheikh Basir, another sage. A monumental structure was subsequently erected at the site by Timur (Tamerlane), who revered Sheikh Sagardzhi. The Rukhabad ensemble included a large courtyard enclosed by a cloister, as well as a summer mosque (visible on the left). The entrance to the ensemble is marked by a gate with a pointed portal arch (peshtak) flanked by two domed towers. One of the remarkable features of this photograph is its comprehensive view of an urban neighborhood with courtyards and houses of sun-dried (adobe) brick walls surfaced with clay. In the background is a portion of the city walls.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Saint Sheikh Nuredin Basir Kutbi-Chaardakhum. General View from the South

This photograph of a mausoleum at the Bukhara emir’s palace in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. At the center of this view is a mausoleum dedicated to the spiritual leader Sheikh Nuredin Basir. Although lacking the complexity of 15th-century centralized mausoleums such as Rukhabad, this structure achieves monumental form with the design of its high dome, supported by a double construction on the interior. Despite clearly visible damage to the tile surface of the dome, the cylinder supporting it is in good condition, with a large ceramic inscription band intact. The mausoleum is located near the palace of the emirs of Bukhara, who ruled Samarkand after the expulsion of the Timurids in the early 16th century. The palace was referred to as “Kok Tash” after the throne of (Timur) Tamerlane, who built a citadel in Samarkand. Of special interest in this photograph is the row of cannons and the Russian guard (in white tunic), an indication of the capture of Samarkand by Russian forces in 1868.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shrine of Chupan-Ata. General View from the Southwest

This photograph of the Chupan-Ata mausoleum on the outskirts of Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. This view of the mid-15th century Chupan-Ata mausoleum (mazar) reveals severe damage to both the structure and the dome, as well as to the surrounding wall of sun-dried (adobe) brick. The elevated position of the structure might have increased the risk of damage in this active seismic zone, yet the high dome, raised on a cylinder, is structurally intact. The name of the mazar means “father of shepherds,” a reference to a popular local cult. No traces of ceramic decoration remain; the exterior seems to have been surfaced with a stucco-like material as a conservation measure. The mausoleum has a centralized design, with four arches rising from the basic cuboid structure and beveled corners buttressing the cylinder beneath the dome. The figure standing on the roof gives an idea of the scale. The sun-baked ground appears to be littered with brick rubble.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Northwest Facade of the Mausoleum

This magnificent photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death of his beloved grandson, Muhammad Sultan. With Timur’s own burial there in 1405, Gur-Emir became in effect the mausoleum of the Timurids. This northwest view (the original photographic title, calling this an east view, is incorrect) of the mausoleum includes a corner of the north iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open) arch (far left). Despite major damage over the centuries in this active seismic zone, the central part of the ensemble remains, including the drum and great ribbed dome with ceramic tile cladding. The drum has monumental inscriptions in elongated Perso-Arabic script, while the minaret shows block Kufic script forming words from the Islamic proclamation of faith. Fragments of polychrome ceramic ornamentation are visible throughout the structure. To the right is a side view of the enormous main arch on the west side of the mausoleum.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Western Facade of the Mausoleum

This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death of his beloved grandson, Muhammad Sultan. With Timur’s own burial there in 1405, Gur-Emir became in effect the mausoleum of the Timurids. Shown here is a west view of the mausoleum, with remnants of a large pointed arch framing the main facade. To the left is the one remaining minaret of the original four. Despite major damage over the centuries in this active seismic zone, the central part of the ensemble survived, including the drum and great ribbed dome with blue ceramic tile cladding. The drum has monumental ceramic inscriptions in elongated Perso-Arabic script, while the minaret shows spirals of block Kufic script forming words from the Islamic proclamation of faith. In the foreground is a group of houses built of sun-dried brick.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. General View of the Gallery for Contemplation of the Saint's Tomb

This photograph of the Khodzha Abdu-Derun mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Derun memorial complex was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word derun (inner) added to signify its location within Samarkand and to distinguish it from another complex commemorating the sage located just beyond the city. The original domed mausoleum, erected perhaps as early as the12th century, was expanded as a pilgrimage shrine in the 15th century. The complex included a courtyard pool, a mosque, and a separate entrance portal leading to the courtyard. This view at the back of the mausoleum shows a passageway that allows pilgrims to see and contemplate the tomb of the saint. Ancillary buildings and a damaged wall extend to the right. The passageway is guarded by a turbaned figure in a colorful silk robe. In the background an ornamental gate leads to a side courtyard.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. General View of the Mausoleum from the Southwest

This photograph of the Khodzha Abdu-Derun mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Derun memorial complex was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word derun (inner) added to signify its location within Samarkand and to distinguish it from another complex commemorating the sage located just beyond the city. The original domed mausoleum, erected perhaps as early as the 12th century, was expanded as a pilgrimage shrine in the 15th century. The complex included a courtyard pool, a mosque, and a separate entrance portal. This view shows the main components from the back. In the center is the domed mausoleum, a centralized structure with a cruciform plan. Although structurally intact, its wall and dome surfaces reveal substantial damage. On the right is the attached mosque with its own dome. On the left is a small minaret in front of the summer mosque. Low ancillary buildings extend from the back, where three figures give an idea of the scale.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

This photograph of a detail of the entrance arch to the courtyard of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death of his beloved grandson Muhammad Sultan at the age of 27. When Timur was buried there in 1405, Gur-Emir became the mausoleum of the Timurids. Shown here is part of the facade to the left of the iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open) arch of the entrance structure. The pointed arch in the lower panel contains botanical figures of polychrome faience within an intricate geometric design. The damaged panel above displays a rectilinear geometric design with floral elements. The panels are framed by a border of floral motifs connected by a delicate tendril pattern. Despite their lack of color, such detailed photographs convey significant information for the study of the original ceramic ornamentation of Samarkand’s architectural monuments.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Decorations on the Main Entry Niche

This photograph of ceramic work on the entrance arch to the courtyard of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death of his beloved grandson Muhammad Sultan at the age of 27. When Timur was buried there in 1405, Gur-Emir became the mausoleum of the Timurids. Shown here is the upper part of the facade within the iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open) niche of the entrance structure. The horizontal band at the bottom is composed of a row of vertical faience panels containing radiant polychrome floral motifs. The panels are capped with pointed arches leading to an intricate pattern of ceramic tiles set within a geometric lattice. The right corner shows remnants of a vault structure known as mocárabe--also referred to as a “stalactite” vault because of the appearance of the suspended decorative elements. The upper corner shows the underlying brick wall.