Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Kitāb Tadhkirat al-Ghāfilīn ‘an Qubḥi Ikhtilāf al-Mu’minīn – aw al-nuṣaḥ al-mubīn ‘an qubḥi ikhtilāf al-mu’minīn (A reminder to the incognizant on the ugliness of discord among the faithful) is a report of how al-Hājj 'Umar ibn Sa'id al-Futi Tal achieved peace between warring factions in the region of present-day Nigeria and northwest to Mali. Al-Hājj 'Umar ibn Sa'id al-Futi Tal (1797-1864) based his arguments on sharia (Islamic law) and Islamic philosophy.