Waterloo, the Tombs, Belgium

This photochrome print of the tombs, or more specifically cenotaphs, at Waterloo is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located approximately 12 kilometers south-southeast of Brussels, Waterloo is the site of the great battle of June 1815 between the French army of Napoleon I and the armies led by the Duke of Wellington of Great Britain and General Blücher of Prussia. On February 26, 1815, Napoleon secretly left the Mediterranean island of Elba, where he had been exiled by the victorious allies the previous year. He marched to Paris, gathered an army, and moved to attack his enemies in Belgium. Napoleon won an initial victory over Blücher at Ligny, but on June 18 Wellington and Blücher were able to combine forces for their decisive victory at Waterloo. Following his defeat, Napoleon abdicated for a second time on June 22 and was exiled to the South Atlantic island of St. Helena, where he resided until his death in 1821. Seen in the background is the Lion’s Mound, or Butte du Lion, an artificial hill that was constructed in 1823–26, made of earth from the battleground. The hill marks the location where William, Prince of Orange, later King William II of the Netherlands, was injured during battle. The hill measures 38 meters high, with a circumference of 491 meters. The lion that surmounts the hill is made of cast iron and measures approximately five meters long and five meters high and weighs nearly 32,000 kilograms. The statue’s blue-stone pedestal is approximately six meters high and is engraved with the date “June 18, 1815.”

Theater of the World

The Flemish scholar and geographer Abraham Ortelius (1527–98) published the first edition of his Theatrum orbis terrarum (Theater of the world) in 1570. Containing 53 maps, each with a detailed commentary, it is considered the first true atlas in the modern sense: a collection of uniform map sheets and accompanying text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved. The 1570 edition was followed by editions in Latin, Dutch, French, German, and Spanish, with an ever-increasing number of maps. It is not known who engraved and printed the maps, but for printing the typographical parts of the atlases Ortelius commissioned a series of Antwerp printers: initially Aegidius Coppens van Diest, followed by Aegidius Radeus in 1575, and in 1579–89 Christopher Plantin (1520–89). Shown here is the French edition of 1587, which contains the same maps as the Latin edition of 1584. For printing the texts, Plantin charged Ortelius 177 florins in June-July of 1587. Plantin was an influential Renaissance humanist and printer. A native of France, he settled in Antwerp around 1549, where he worked first as a bookbinder and, in 1555, established his own publishing house, De Gulden Passer (The golden compasses). Plantin produced many important religious, humanistic, and scientific books, including the famous Biblia Polyglotta (Polyglot Bible) of 1568–73.

Hieroglyphs: Commentaries on the Sacred Letters of the Egyptians and Other Peoples

Hieroglyphica by the Italian humanist Pierio Valeriano (1477–1560), also known by the Latinized version of his name, Pierius Valerianus, is the first modern study of Egyptian hieroglyphs. Originally published in Basel, Switzerland, in 1556, the book became very popular in Europe. It was reprinted in the 16th and 17th centuries and translated from the original Latin into French and Italian. This Latin edition was published in Lyon, France, in 1602. Valeriano partly based his book on the Hieroglyphica of Horapollo, who is said to have been an Egyptian priest whose work survives in a fifth-century Greek translation that was discovered on the island of Andros in 1419. The Hieroglyphica is often considered a Renaissance dictionary of symbols. Valeriano collates a wide variety of passages from ancient authors and brings together Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and mediaeval symbols, with commentary and numerous illustrations. The work is dedicated to the Duke of Florence, Cosimo de’ Medici (1519–74).

Saint Andrew's Church, Kiev

This view of Saint Andrew’s Church is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. In 1744 the Empress Elizabeth chose the site of the Tsar’s Palace (often called the Mariyinsky Palace) in Kiev for a royal residence in the south of the Russian Empire, and plans were also made for the baroque Saint Andrew’s Church to replace an earlier wooden church. Legend holds that Saint Andrew visited the area of Kiev and prophesied that it would be the cradle of Christianity in the Slavic lands. Bartolomeo Rastrelli drew up the architectural design for the church, and Ivan Michurin oversaw the construction, which presented significant engineering problems. The church sits on top of a hill steep enough that the planned ramp up to it had to be cancelled and steps used instead. The exterior, with its five domes and a cupola, was finished in 1754; the interior work continued until 1767. This image shows the church with its adjoining residence for the priest, which was also designed by Rastrelli. The 25 views in Souvenir of Kiev are collotypes, made using a chemically-based printing process widely employed before the invention of offset lithography.

Tsar's Palace

This view of the Tsar’s Palace (often called the Mariyinsky Palace) in Kiev is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. The site of the palace was chosen by the Empress Elizabeth in 1744 to serve as the royal residence in the south of the Russian Empire and to echo the grandeur of Versailles. Moscow architect Ivan Michurin constructed the palace from initial designs by Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Both men combined contemporary Italian design with the Russian baroque style. Completed in the 1750s, the palace was destroyed by a fire in 1819. It was rebuilt in 1868–70, essentially to Rastrelli’s original designs. The pediment above the entrance depicts the figures of Mercy and Justice. The palace faces the Mariyinsky Park, which was laid out in 1874. This image shows the main façade of the palace. The 25 views in Souvenir of Kiev are collotypes, made using a chemically-based printing process widely employed before the invention of offset lithography.

The Golden Gates of Kiev

This view of the Golden Gates of Kiev is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. Located on the south side of the city, the gates formed one of three entrance gateways to Kiev constructed in the first half of the 11th century by Yaroslav the Wise. They were a considerable achievement in fortifying Kievan Rus. It has been determined that the structure was a huge tower pierced by three tiers of apertures. Although heavily damaged over the centuries, the ceremonial gateway endured until the mid-17th century. In the 18th century, the remains of the Golden Gates were covered over with earth. Archaeologists led by Kindrat Lokhvytsky rediscovered the ruins in 1832 and uncovered them, and five years later the extremely thick gate walls were strengthened by buttresses and iron rods, which is how they appear here. The 25 views in Souvenir of Kiev are collotypes, made using a chemically-based printing process widely employed before the invention of offset lithography.

The University, Kiev

This view of Kiev University of Saint Vladimir (now Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University) is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. The university was founded in 1834. Alexander V. Beretti, professor of architecture at Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts was the architect who designed its main building, completed in 1842. The monumental four-story building in the Russian classical style, with a central portico and eight Ionic columns, sits on former wasteland on top of a hill and has become one of the most important landmarks of the city. Its dominant position significantly influenced the development of Kiev’s architectural layout. The rectangular building is more than 144 meters long on the entrance front and surrounds a central courtyard. It is painted red, with the capitols and bases of columns painted black, the colors of the stripes on the Order of Saint Vladimir. This image shows the university’s main façade on Vladimirskaya Street. The 25 views in Souvenir of Kiev are collotypes, made using a chemically-based printing process widely employed before the invention of offset lithography.

Monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky

This view of the monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. Bohdan Khmelnytsky (circa 1594–1657), was a Cossack who led a rebellion against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, leading first to an independent Cossack state and ultimately to union with the Russian Empire. He is generally held to be a national hero and founder of Ukraine, and the monument to him occupies a key spot in Saint Sophia Square. The equestrian statue by sculptor Mikhail Mikeshin, on a granite base by architect Vladimir Nikolaev, was installed in July 1888 during the celebrations for the 900th anniversary of the baptism of Prince Vladimir Sviatoslavich, later Saint Vladimir the Great. The 25 views in Souvenir of Kiev are collotypes, made using a chemically-based printing process widely employed before the invention of offset lithography.

View of the University

This view of Kiev University of Saint Vladimir (now Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University) is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. The university was founded in 1834. Its huge main building, seen in the left background, dates from the mid-19th century and is painted red, with the capitols and bases of columns painted black, the colors of the stripes on the Order of Saint Vladimir. The foreground shows part of the market area of Bessarabka Square. Saint Vladimir’s Cathedral was built to mark the 900th anniversary of the conversion to Christianity of Kievan Rus by Prince Vladimir (or Volodymyr) Sviatoslavich, later Saint Vladimir the Great. Construction finished in 1896, when its completion was celebrated in the presence of the Russian royal family. This image shows the view from Bessarabka Square up Bibikovsky Boulevard. The 25 views in Souvenir of Kiev are collotypes, made using a chemically-based printing process widely employed before the invention of offset lithography.

Saint Michael’s Monastery

This view of Saint Michael’s Monastery is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. The monastery was founded in the late 11th century and dedicated to the Archangel Michael, who later was adopted as the city’s patron saint. The cathedral of the monastery was originally constructed in the early 12th century, and its domes were probably the first in Kiev to be gilded, leading to the monastery’s nickname: St. Michael’s Golden-Domed Monastery. Gilding the domes of major churches became general practice in the Russian Empire. The interior of the cathedral was famous for its frescoes and mosaics. The main stone construction of the monastery buildings dates from the early to mid-18th century and is in Ukrainian baroque style. In 1746, the number of domes atop the cathedral was increased to seven. Shown here is a view of the bell tower, constructed in 1716–19, and the cathedral with Saint Michael’s Square in the foreground. The 25 views in Souvenir of Kiev are collotypes, made using a chemically-based printing process widely employed before the invention of offset lithography.