This work covers the history of madrasah education in India, from its earliest foundations under Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi (979–1030), a patron of learning who ruled over an extensive empire that included most of present-day Afghanistan, eastern Iran, Pakistan, and northwestern India. Madrasahs, or Islamic religious schools, became widespread after the beginning of the Delhi sultanate in 1206, making them among the oldest active institutions in India. The early madrasahs were centers of learning, which educated the sons of rulers and personnel for government administration. When Muslim rule declined with the advent of the British Raj, madrasah schools lost their reputation as centers of excellence and suffered in competition with modern education. The involvement of madrasah leaders in the 1857 rebellion made them suspect to the British, but Islamic education revived with the establishment in 1866 of a Muslim seminary called Darul Uloom at Deoband. The seminary filled a dual role in disseminating Islamic knowledge and mobilizing Indian Muslims to participate in the nationalist struggle aimed at expelling the British. This book details the distribution of madrasahs and describes teaching methods and the curricula in Indian and Persian madrasah schools. It includes information about students, renowned scholars in the Islamic education system, and poets and their poetry.