Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Main Facade (Southern). Inscription on One of the Panels of the Main Niche

This photograph of a detail from the main entrance to the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples of a madrasah (religious school). The third Registan component, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646-60, on the site of a former caravanserai. The entrance to the rectangular courtyard is framed by a great iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open). This view shows a ceramic tile panel on the upper part of the right side of the niche formed by the iwan arch. The panel’s intricate decorative pattern is composed of Kufic letters that form words from the Kalima, which is the basis of the Shahada, or Islamic declaration of faith. The panel is framed by tile strips. Such detailed photographs indicate the serious documentary purpose and technical mastery of the album’s photographers.

Classical Islamic Education Institutions in Hindustan

This work covers the history of madrasah education in India, from its earliest foundations under Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi (979–1030), a patron of learning who ruled over an extensive empire that included most of present-day Afghanistan, eastern Iran, Pakistan, and northwestern India. Madrasahs, or Islamic religious schools, became widespread after the beginning of the Delhi sultanate in 1206, making them among the oldest active institutions in India. The early madrasahs were centers of learning, which educated the sons of rulers and personnel for government administration. When Muslim rule declined with the advent of the British Raj, madrasah schools lost their reputation as centers of excellence and suffered in competition with modern education. The involvement of madrasah leaders in the 1857 rebellion made them suspect to the British, but Islamic education revived with the establishment in 1866 of a Muslim seminary called Darul Uloom at Deoband. The seminary filled a dual role in disseminating Islamic knowledge and mobilizing Indian Muslims to participate in the nationalist struggle aimed at expelling the British. This book details the distribution of madrasahs and describes teaching methods and the curricula in Indian and Persian madrasah schools. It includes information about students, renowned scholars in the Islamic education system, and poets and their poetry.

Articles in Pink Urdu

This publication consists of articles written by Siddiq Irshad Mullā Rumūzī (also seen as Ramozi, 1896–1952), a celebrated Urdu humorist and satirist. His subjects here are politicians and their actions, events involving politicians, and the state of the economy. His essays in this booklet also poke fun at so-called religious people, whom he deems imperceptive of the true essence of Islam and who blindly follow old traditions without any logic. While disapproving of people and situations and suggesting reforms, Mullā Rumūzī was careful not to criticize his country. Critics have praised his masterly use of an original style and clever parodies. He invented a form of Urdu that made creative use of a dated syntax and vocabulary, which is now known as Gulabi Urdu, Pink Urdu, or Sweet Urdu. His writing is considered the foundation of a new art form, and Mullā Rumūzī Sanskriti Bhavan, the headquarters of Madhya Pradesh Urdu Academy, is named after him.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah. Northern Side. End

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples of a madrasah (religious school). The second madrasah in the ensemble, the Shir Dar, was built in 1619-36, during the Astrakhanid dynasty. Despite significant damage over the centuries, it remains one of the most lavishly ornamented monuments in Central Asia. The form of this madrasah is typical for the region, with a rectangular courtyard enclosed by a two-story arcade. This view of a recessed bay, or niche, at the end of the north wall displays the complexity of the decorative work, which is composed of polychrome tiles in intricate geometric and botanical patterns. Above the pointed arch panel are horizontal inscription bands in the Thuluth cursive style. Visible at the top is a row of panels beneath the arch vault.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah. Northern Side. Beginning

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples of a madrasah (religious school). The second madrasah in the ensemble, the Shir Dar, was built in 1619-36, during the Astrakhanid dynasty. Despite significant damage over the centuries, it remains one of the most lavishly ornamented monuments in Central Asia. The form of this madrasah is typical for the region, with a rectangular courtyard enclosed by a two-story arcade. This view of a recessed bay, or niche, in the north wall displays the complexity of the decorative work, composed of polychrome tiles in intricate geometric and botanical patterns. Above the pointed arch panel are horizontal inscription bands in the Thuluth cursive style. Visible at the top is an arch vault composed of “stalactite” ceramic components in a manner known as mocárabe.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Main Facade (Southern). Door to the Inner Courtyard

This photograph of the door of the main entrance to the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples of a madrasah (religious school). The third Registan component, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646-60, on the site of a former caravanserai. The entrance to the rectangular courtyard is framed by a great iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open) flanked on either side by a two-story arcade. Shown here is the wooden door within the iwan niche. The panels of the door are covered with a relief of intricate carving in geometric and botanical motifs. The top horizontal panels contain carved inscription bands in a cursive style. Both sides of the door show vertical cracks and have been reinforced by metal strips at the top and bottom.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Main Facade (Southern). End. Inscription along the inside of the Main Niche and Its Upper Part

This photograph of the main entrance to the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples of a madrasah (religious school). The third Registan component, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646-60, on the site of a former caravanserai. The entrance to the rectangular courtyard is framed by a great iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open), flanked by a two-story arcade with rooms for scholars. This view shows a ceramic panel on the upper part of the left face of the iwan niche. The main part of the panel is recessed within the figure of a pointed arch. The complex surface is covered with polychrome majolica tiles that form intricate geometric and botanical patterns. Above the pointed arch are fragments of an inscription band in a cursive style. The panel is framed by a raised decorative strip with geometric figures that culminates in a larger cursive inscription band.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah. Southern Side. Beginning

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples of a madrasah (religious school). The second madrasah in the ensemble, the Shir Dar, was built in 1619-36, during the Astrakhanid dynasty. Despite significant damage over the centuries, it remains one of the most lavishly ornamented monuments in Central Asia. The form of this madrasah is typical for the region, with a rectangular courtyard enclosed by a two-story arcade. This view of a recessed bay, or niche, in the south wall displays decorative work composed of polychrome tiles in intricate geometric, botanical, and inscriptional patterns. Above the panels at the bottom is a horizontal inscription band in the Thuluth cursive style. Decorative panels at the top culminate in pointed arches that merge with a complex structure of intersecting vaults.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah. Inscriptions around the Inner Niche and Its Upper Sections. Center

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples of a madrasah (religious school). The second madrasah in the ensemble, the Shir Dar, was built in 1619-36, during the Astrakhanid dynasty. Despite significant damage over the centuries, it remains one of the most lavishly ornamented monuments in Central Asia. The form of this madrasah consists of a rectangular courtyard enclosed by a two-story arcade. Visible here is the upper part of the niche of the iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open) in the center of the south wall. The surfaces are covered with polychrome majolica tiles in elaborate geometric and botanical patterns. The rectangular panels with pointed arches lead to a horizontal inscription band in the Thuluth cursive style. Above the inscription are pointed arch panels divided by a system of intersecting ribbed vaults.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah. Inscriptions around the Inner Niche and Its Upper Sections. Center

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples of a madrasah (religious school). The second madrasah in the ensemble, the Shir Dar, was built in 1619-36, during the Astrakhanid dynasty. Despite significant damage over the centuries, it remains one of the most lavishly ornamented monuments in Central Asia. The form of this madrasah consists of a rectangular courtyard enclosed by a two-story arcade with an iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open) and a mosque on the eastern side. This view shows the east wall niche, with the lattice work of a window on the second level. The niche is covered with elaborate ceramic work composed of polychrome tiles in geometric and botanical patterns. The pointed window arch is framed by an inscription band in the Thuluth cursive style. Visible at the top are the “stalactite” decorative elements of the arch vault.