Students Studying in the Netherlands at the End of the Edo Period

This photograph of Japanese students in the Netherlands was taken in 1865. After the arrival in Japan of Commodore Mathew C. Perry and the opening of Japanese ports to international trade, the acquisition of Western science and technology became an urgent priority for Japan. The shogunate government drew up a plan to dispatch students to Western countries. The government initially planned to purchase its first warship from the United States and send its first students there, but the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War forced it to drop those plans. Instead, it decided to make requests to the Netherlands. Negotiations for the purchase of a warship and the dispatch of students were successful, and on April 11, 1862 the first group of students received orders to travel to Europe. The group included Enomoto Takeaki (also called Kamajiro), Sawa Tarōzaemon, Akamatsu Noriyoshi (Daizaburō), Uchida Masao (Kojiro), and Taguchi Shunpei from the Warship Navigation Institute. Tsuda Mamichi (Shin'ichirō) and Nishi Amane (Shusuke) from the Bureau for the Inspection of Barbarian Books were also included; as well as Ito Genpuku and Hayashi Kenkai, who were receiving medical training at Nagasaki; and seven other craftsmen who were technicians in casting, shipbuilding, and other trades. On July 14, they boarded the Kanrin-maru and left Edo (present-day Tokyo). In the Netherlands, the students studied naval technologies, the social sciences, medicine, and other subjects.

Vyborg Province

This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Vyborgskaia guberniia (Viborg [Vyborg] Province) depicted on this card corresponds to part of present-day Russia and Finland.

The Battery at a Fort in Bahia

The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Fort of San Marcelo, also known as the Sea Fort, is located on a slab of land in the Bay of All Saints off the coast of Bahia State. The fort was constructed by the Portuguese in the mid-17th century to protect the port city of Salvador, then the capital of Brazil, which the Portuguese had recently reclaimed from the Dutch. The fort is circular, and built of sandstone. For much of the 20th century, the National Institute of Historic and Artistic Sites (IPHAN) carried out archeological and reconstructive work at the fort. Today the fort is open to the public and is a popular tourist attraction.