The Hindu Kush and Passes Between the Kabul and Oxus

This map originally appeared in the February 1879 issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography in connection with an article by C.R. Markham entitled “The Upper Basin of the Kabul River.” The Hindu Kush is a range of high mountains that extends some 800 kilometers in a northeast-to-southwest direction from the Pamir Mountains near the Pakistan-China border, through Pakistan, and into western Afghanistan. The range forms the drainage divide between two great river systems, the Amu Darya to the northwest, and the Indus to the southeast. The ancient Greeks called the Amu Darya the Oxus, the name used on this map. The passes through the Hindu Kush historically have been of great military significance. Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) crossed these mountains with his army in 329 BC, most likely over the Khawak Pass, during a campaign to suppress a revolt against his authority in Bactria, an eastern province of the Persian Empire.

Spindelmuhl, Riesengebirge, Germany (i.e.,Špindlerův Mlýn, Czech Republic)

This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Germany” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the village of Spindelmühl (present-day Špindlerův Mlýn) in what is now the Czech Republic. Baedeker’s Northern Germany: As Far as the Bavarian and Austrian Frontiers (1897) described Spindelmühl as a favorite summer resort, located at an altitude of 2,600 feet (792 meters) in the Giant Mountains (Riesengebirge). The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process permitted the mass production of color postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market. The firm became the Detroit Publishing Company in 1905.

Kusae, on the Basis of British and German Nautical Charts / by E. Sarfert

This map of the volcanic island of Kosrae in the western Pacific is by Ernst Gotthilf Sarfert, a German ethnographer who participated in the German South Sea Expedition of 1908–10 and spent four months on Kosrae in 1909, studying the island and its people. Kosrae comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia, the others being Pohnpei, also a single volcanic island; Truk, a group of 14 volcanic islands; and Yap, a group of four islands and 13 coral atolls. These islands are all part of the archipelago formerly known as the Caroline Islands. Spain, at the time the colonial power in the nearby Philippines, acquired sovereignty over the Caroline Islands in 1885–86, but sold the islands to Germany in 1899. Following Germany’s defeat in World War I, Japan took control of the islands under a League of Nations mandate. With Japan’s defeat in World War II, the islands were mandated to the United States as part of the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Federated States of Micronesia were formed from the trust territory in 1979 and became fully independent in 1990.

Margaret's Isle, Budapest, Hungary, Austro-Hungary

This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts an elegant building on Margaret Island (Margitsziget, in Hungarian), a 2.5-kilometer long island in the Danube River in central Budapest. According to Baedeker’s Austria, Including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia, and Bosnia (1900), the island was “the property of Archduke Joseph, who has converted it, at an outlay of several million florins, into a most delightful park.” Margaret Island was named for Saint Margaret (1242-70), the daughter of King Béla IV, who founded a nunnery on the island and vowed to send his daughter, Princess Margaret, to the nunnery if he was able to rebuild his country after the Mongol invasion. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process permitted the mass production of color postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market. The firm became the Detroit Publishing Company in 1905.

Peasants Dancing, Bosnia, Austro-Hungary

This photochrome print is part of “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,” a selection of photographs of late-19th-century tourist sites in Eastern and Central Europe (formerly the Austro-Hungarian Empire) in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. Bosnia was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1463. Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, the Congress of Berlin (1878) gave Austria-Hungary a mandate to occupy and govern Bosnia and Herzegovina, which remained under nominal Ottoman sovereignty until 1908. Shown here are peasants in traditional dress, performing a dance (identified on the print in German as the kolotanz). The population of Bosnia and Herzegovina was overwhelmingly rural; in 1895, 88 percent of the population was employed in agriculture. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr., and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This innovative process was applied to the mass production of color postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market. The firm became the Detroit Publishing Company in 1905.

Franz Joseph's Bridge, Looking Towards the Bridge, Budapest, Hungary, Austro-Hungary

This photochrome print from around 1900 is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the 330-meter long Franz Josef Bridge, which was constructed in 1894-96 as the fourth bridge to span the Danube River in the city of Budapest, the capital of Hungary. The bridge is known today as the Szabadság (Freedom) Bridge. A fifth bridge, the Erzsébet (Elizabeth) Bridge, was built in 1897-1903. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process permitted the mass production of color postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market. The firm became the Detroit Publishing Company in 1905.

Visegrad, Bosnia, Austro-Hungary

This photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,” a selection of photographs of late-19th century tourist sites in Eastern and Central Europe (formerly the Austro-Hungarian Empire) in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts the Mehmed Pasha Sokolović Bridge across the Drina River in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The bridge was built in the late 16th century by the court architect Mimar Koca Sinan (1490-1588) by order of the Ottoman Grand Vizier Mehmed Pasha Sokolović (1505 or 1506-79). Built of 11 masonry arches with spans of 11-15 meters, the 179.5-meter bridge represents a high point of Ottoman monumental architecture and civil engineering. The bridge was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2007. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process permitted the mass production of color postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market. The firm became the Detroit Publishing Company in 1905.

National Theatre, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary

This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the National Theater in Prague or, as it was known at that time, the Bohemian National Theater. The building was designed in a Neo-Renaissance style by Josef von Zitek (1832-1909), professor of civil engineering at the technical college in Prague. Construction began in 1868 and was completed in 1881. Shortly after the grand opening, a fire destroyed much of the building, but the theater was rebuilt in less than two years, financed by contributions from the public. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process permitted the mass production of color postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market. The firm became the Detroit Publishing Company in 1905.

Radetzky Memorial, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary

This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the bronze monument to Field Marshal Radetzky, who stands on a shield borne by eight soldiers, holding his baton and a flag. Joseph, Count Radetzky (1766-1858), was a soldier of Czech origin who led many victorious campaigns in the service of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The monument was erected in 1858, the year of Radetzky’s death. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process permitted the mass production of color postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market. The firm became the Detroit Publishing Company in 1905.

A Sami Family, Norway

This photochrome print is part of “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. The photo shows a Sami, or Lapp, family gathered by a pair of traditional conical tents called lavvu, in northern Norway. In his 1876 work Through Norway with a Knapsack, the British scientist and author William Mattieu Williams described the lavvu as "a framework of wooden ribs, all bearing towards each other in the centre," over which animal skin is stretched for insulation. The Sami, the indigenous people of northern Scandinavia and Finland, were traditionally semi-nomadic reindeer herders. The first known account of them was by the Roman historian Tacitus, who in 98 A.D. marveled and described them as living in "wonderful savageness." The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process permitted the mass production of color postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market.