February 10, 2011

Plan for Independence of América Septentrional (Mexico)

Agustin de Iturbide was a Royalist officer in the Mexican War of Independence who fought the insurgent leader Vicente Guerrero. Failing to defeat the insurgency, Iturbide adopted the cause of independence and allied with Guerrero (an event known as the "Embrace of Acatempan"), thereby making it possible to end the war and secure independence from Spain. On February 24, 1821, Iturbide proclaimed the Plan of Iguala (named for a city in the present state of Guerrero, in the south of the country), and with it declared the independence of the then-called América Septentrional (Mexico). After the proclamation of independence he continued with the creation of "Imperial Mexico." His army was called that of the Three Guarantees: Catholicism, Independence, and Union (of the opposed parties after the war). The independence of Mexico was consummated after Iturbide entered Mexico City at the head of his troops on September 27, 1821.

Declaration to the World by Agustin de Iturbide or Rather Notes for History

This manuscript, tinged with blood and found between the sash and shirt of Agustín de Iturbide after his execution by firing squad on July 19, 1824, is an emotional defense of Iturbide’s public career. A former Royalist officer who joined the Mexican struggle for independence, Itrubide was crowned emperor of Mexico on May 21, 1822, under the name Agustín I. However, he was unable to achieve peace and abdicated on March 19, 1823, and went into exile. Without knowing that he had been declared a traitor and an outlaw, he returned to Mexico on July 14, 1824, where he was apprehended and executed in the village of Padilla, in the present-day state of Tamaulipas. This manifesto was written by Iturbide during his exile in Italy and is addressed to the British Ambassador. "I do not have the presumption of the literati, nor the pride that is often attributed to those in positions similar to the one I left; my desire is only to respond honestly to my detractors who slander me, and to those who are opposed to feelings such as love of humanity, idolizing my country, and wishing for order, coupled with the desire to expel from my country the slavery and ignorance which abides there.”

A Map of the Estate of Peter Langford Brooke, Esquire, Called the Wood Situated in the Parish of St. John's, Antigua

In the colonial period, the Langford Brooke family of Mere in Cheshire, England, owned several properties on the island of Antigua. This map from 1821, based in part on an earlier map, shows the Wood estate with its 24 fields devoted to the growing of sugar cane. The index on the right indicates the works and buildings on the estate, and the exact sizes of the different fields. An accompanying ground plan, prepared by the same surveyor, depicted the estate’s works and buildings in more detail. Antigua’s earliest inhabitants were the Siboney people, followed by Arawak and Carib Indians. The first European to visit the island was Christopher Columbus in 1493, who named it “Santa Maria de la Antigua.” In 1632, the British established a colony on Antigua, and began importing large numbers of slaves from Africa to work on its sugar cane plantations. The slaves were freed in 1834, but many former slaves continued to work on the sugar plantations. In 1981, Antigua became independent as part of the country of Antigua and Barbuda.

Four Songs: Annandale Robin; The Blue Yed Lassie; The Birks of Aberfeldy; For A' That and A' That

Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a critical success, and its poems in both Scots and English, on a range of topics, established Burns’s broad appeal. While building his literary reputation, Burns worked as a farmer, and in 1788 he was appointed an excise officer in Ellisland. He spent the final 12 years of his life collecting and editing traditional Scottish folk songs for collections including The Scots Musical Museum and A Select Collection of Original Scotish [sic] Airs for the Voice. Burns contributed hundreds of Scottish songs to these anthologies, sometimes rewriting traditional lyrics and setting them to new or revised music. Burns’s works were widely distributed throughout Scotland and beyond in chapbooks. These small, inexpensive eight-page booklets were often illustrated with woodcuts and printed on coarse paper. Chapbooks (called garlands if they included songs) were a popular form of entertainment in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the principal way that ordinary people encountered songs and poetry. They were distributed by traveling “chapmen” who sold the books at markets and door-to-door in rural areas. Chapbooks often included poems by more than one author, and the authors were not identified. This book, from the G. Ross Roy Collection at the University of South Carolina, includes Burns’s "The Blue-Eyed Lassie," "The Birks of Aberfeldy," and "For A' That and A' That."

Four New Songs: Daft Jamie; The Two Emigrants; The Lea Rig; Irish Hafts for English Blades

Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a critical success, and its poems in both Scots and English, on a range of topics, established Burns’s broad appeal. While building his literary reputation, Burns worked as a farmer, and in 1788 he was appointed an excise officer in Ellisland. He spent the final 12 years of his life collecting and editing traditional Scottish folk songs for collections including The Scots Musical Museum and A Select Collection of Original Scotish [sic] Airs for the Voice. Burns contributed hundreds of Scottish songs to these anthologies, sometimes rewriting traditional lyrics and setting them to new or revised music. Burns’s works were widely distributed throughout Scotland and beyond in chapbooks. These small, inexpensive eight-page booklets were often illustrated with woodcuts and printed on coarse paper. Chapbooks (called garlands if they included songs) were a popular form of entertainment in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the principal way that ordinary people encountered songs and poetry. They were distributed by traveling “chapmen” who sold the books at markets and door-to-door in rural areas. Chapbooks often included poems by more than one author, and the authors were not identified. This book, from the G. Ross Roy Collection at the University of South Carolina, includes Burns’s "The Lea Rig."

Hills O' Gallowa: To Which are Added, Last May a Braw Wooer; Green Grow the Rashes, O; Sweet the Rose Blaws

Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a critical success, and its poems in both Scots and English, on a range of topics, established Burns’s broad appeal. While building his literary reputation, Burns worked as a farmer, and in 1788 he was appointed an excise officer in Ellisland. He spent the final 12 years of his life collecting and editing traditional Scottish folk songs for collections including The Scots Musical Museum and A Select Collection of Original Scotish [sic] Airs for the Voice. Burns contributed hundreds of Scottish songs to these anthologies, sometimes rewriting traditional lyrics and setting them to new or revised music. Burns’s works were widely distributed throughout Scotland and beyond in chapbooks. These small, inexpensive eight-page booklets were often illustrated with woodcuts and printed on coarse paper. Chapbooks (called garlands if they included songs) were a popular form of entertainment in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the principal way that ordinary people encountered songs and poetry. They were distributed by traveling “chapmen” who sold the books at markets and door-to-door in rural areas. Chapbooks often included poems by more than one author, and the authors were not identified. This book, from the G. Ross Roy Collection at the University of South Carolina, includes Burns’s "Last May a Braw Wooer," "Green Grow the Rashes, O," and "Sic a Wife as Willie Had."