Free Will and Acts of Faith

This manuscript is a philosophical-religious work with citations from the Qurʼan. The text of this copy dating from the early 19th century is written in a very small and poor quality Nasta’liq script with black ink on thin yellowish paper. This style of Perso-Arabic script was the predominant style of Persian calligraphy in the 14th and 15th centuries and was very popular with Ottoman calligraphers. The manuscript is bound with ten other works dealing with grammar, rhetoric, and other subjects. It is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director, who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript volumes and 365 print volumes, which reflect the development of Islamic civilization from its inception to the early 20th century. The manuscript is item 412 in Jozef Blaškovič, Arabské, turecké a perzské rukopisy Univerzitnej knižnice v Bratislave (Arab, Turkish, and Persian manuscripts in the University Library, Bratislava). The manuscripts bound with this one are items 290, 370, 318, 365, 280, 281, 388, 289, and 282.

Works of Galileo Galilei, Part 4, Volume 2, Astronomy: Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems

This manuscript of 1632 contains an incomplete, autographical editing of Dialogo sopra i massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems) by the Italian scientist and mathematician Galileo Galilei (1564–1642). The text of this version, at the National Central Library in Florence, is very close to the definitive manuscript prepared for print (the complete autographical version of the text is in the Seminary Library in Padua). Published in 1632, the Dialogo had occupied Galileo for six years and is one of his most important works. It takes the form of a discussion among a spokesman for Copernicus, a spokesman for Ptolemy and Aristotle, and an educated layman who the two spokesmen attempt to win over. The church had issued an edict in 1616, which prohibited Galileo from teaching the Copernican view of the solar system. Galileo traveled to Rome in 1624 to meet with Pope Urban VIII, who refused to lift the edict but gave Galileo permission to discuss the Copernican system in a book, provided he gave equal and impartial treatment to the geocentric view associated with Ptolemy and Aristotle. The Dialogo reflects Galileo’s attempt to advance his scientific views while observing the letter of the church’s order.

Jack Tar: To Which is Added, The World's a Stage; Astonishing Abraham Newland; The Sailor's Return

Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a critical success, and its poems in both Scots and English, on a range of topics, established Burns’s broad appeal. While building his literary reputation, Burns worked as a farmer, and in 1788 he was appointed an excise officer in Ellisland. He spent the final 12 years of his life collecting and editing traditional Scottish folk songs for collections including The Scots Musical Museum and A Select Collection of Original Scotish [sic] Airs for the Voice. Burns contributed hundreds of Scottish songs to these anthologies, sometimes rewriting traditional lyrics and setting them to new or revised music. Burns’s works were widely distributed throughout Scotland and beyond in chapbooks. These small, inexpensive eight-page booklets were often illustrated with woodcuts and printed on coarse paper. Chapbooks (called garlands if they included songs) were a popular form of entertainment in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the principal way that ordinary people encountered songs and poetry. They were distributed by traveling "chapmen" who sold the books at markets and door-to-door in rural areas. Chapbooks often included poems by more than one author, and the authors were not identified.

Golfers by the Miami Biltmore Hotel

The Biltmore Hotel, built in 1925, is a large Spanish-style structure with a tower modeled after the Giralda Tower of Seville’s cathedral. Constructed on 19.8 acres (8 hectares), the hotel featured opulent interiors, courtyards, a country club, winding canals, formal gardens, and a golf course. Built by George Merrick, the developer of the Coral Gables part of Miami, with John McEntee Bowman, to designs by Leonard Schultze and S. Fullerton Weaver, the hotel soon became a fashionable winter resort. Surrounded by its world-class golf course and home to the largest swimming pool in the world, the Biltmore was an attraction for celebrities, political leaders, and wealthy tourists the world over. The Duke and Duchess of Windsor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Ginger Rogers, Judy Garland, Bing Crosby, and Al Capone were all frequent guests. The hotel contributed in large part to the tourism boom in southern Florida in the opening decades of the 20th century. This image from 1927 shows golfers on the putting green next to the massive hotel.

Cuban Refugee Breaks Down Upon his Arrival at Key West, Florida from Mariel, Cuba During the Mariel Boatlift

The Mariel Boatlift was a mass exodus of Cubans from Mariel Port on the island of Cuba to Florida between April and November 1980. Departure by boat was permitted by the Castro government after several years of improving relations between Cuba and the United States under President Jimmy Carter, a period that coincided with a severe downturn in the Cuban economy. Perhaps as many as 125,000 Cubans made the journey to Florida on overcrowded craft of varying size and seaworthiness. Political opinion in the United States began to turn against Carter after media reports revealed that recently released convicted criminals and mental patients were among those seeking asylum. This image, by photographer and firefighter Dale M. McDonald, shows the overwhelming emotions of a refugee at arriving safely in Key West from Cuba.

White Springs School 5th Graders Dancing

This photograph of children dancing is from the 1959 Florida Folk Festival. The festival first took place in 1953, on the grounds of the Stephen Foster Memorial along the banks of the Suwanee River in White Springs. The Suwannee formed the boundary between the Timucuans and the Apalachees, and the area was also considered special by the Seminole and Miccosukee peoples. The springs were considered by several indigenous American peoples to have healing powers. Settlers who began arriving in the area in the 1830s also advocated taking the waters, and tourism developed for travelers seeking cures for various ailments. The town also drew wealth from cotton and lumber. The Florida Folk Festival is one of the oldest and largest such festivals in the United States, and celebrates the arts and crafts of all Floridians.

Lucreaty Clark Weaving a White Oak Basket

Lucreaty J. Clark was born in 1904 in Lamont, Florida. She continued the craft of making white oak baskets, which she learned from her mother and father. Her parents originally made these sturdy baskets for use on the plantation where they lived and worked in north Florida, an area where white oaks are plentiful. The baskets were used to hold cotton and carry vegetables. Before making baskets, Clark would select a tree of the right size and, once cut down, would split the logs into thin strips or “splits.” White oak splits are naturally pliable and do not require soaking to make them softer, as do other woods. Clark would weave a basket from the bottom up, without a formal plan or measurements, finishing with the rim. Clark died in 1986, but the family tradition of white oak basket making was carried on by her grandson, Alphonso Jennings. This image from the Florida Folklife Archive records this unique folk art form of the southeastern United States.

Kazuo and Masuko Kamiya as Children

This photograph, taken about 1920, shows two young children of the Yamato Colony, a farming community in south Florida founded by Japanese immigrant Jo Sakai in 1905 with the encouragement of Florida authorities, who thought the Japanese would introduce innovative farming methods and new crops. Yamato was an ancient name for Japan. The community was located in what is now Boca Raton, and the farmers grew pineapples and later winter vegetables. Jo Sakai encouraged young men from his Japanese village, Miyazu, to settle at Yamato, a prospect that appealed to several hundred immigrants, as industrialization and shortages of land had made farming in Japan increasingly difficult. Many of the settlers did not stay for long; some went back to Japan and others moved elsewhere for greater opportunities, including to the west coast of the United States. Few of the Japanese settlers remained by World War II. In 1942, not long after the Pearl Harbor attack, when anti-Japanese sentiment was at a peak, the federal government confiscated land belonging to the settlers —more than 6,000 acres (2,428 hectares)—to create an Army Air Corp training base, ending the Yamato Colony. A former Yamato Colony settler, George Morikami, farmed in Delray Beach until the 1970s, when he donated his land to Palm Beach County to establish what became the Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens.

Man Fishing at Blue Springs

This undated photograph of Blue Springs in Marion County, Florida captures the tranquility offered by Florida’s springs before the rapid development of urban centers in central Florida altered the landscape. Marion County was the location of a U.S. government military agency established in 1825 to oversee displaced Seminoles. White settlers began moving into the area in the early to mid-19th century to take advantage of the abundant farm land and numerous freshwater springs and spring-fed rivers. Trading posts and communities formed around the springs, including what would later become cities such as Belleview, Dunnellon, and the eventual county seat, Ocala, named for a settlement of the Timucuans. This image of a man fishing with a cane pole near a crude lodge captures an idyllic scene of early Florida life centered on its springs.

Americana Hotel

Designed by Russian immigrant architect Morris Lapidus (1902–2001) and completed in 1956, the Americana Hotel is a dynamic example of the Miami Modern architecture style, or “MIMO,” which rose to prominence in southeast Florida in the 1950s and 1960s. Miami Modern was the local variant of the midcentury modernism, or the international style, which incorporated prefabricated materials, such as cast concrete, to produce explorative designs and project a strong sense of modern technology and innovation. Space-age forms incorporating such elements as parabolic curves were combined with the new possibilities of cast concrete exemplified by Frank Lloyd Wright’s works. Steel-reinforced concrete enabled architects to manipulate the shape of buildings in imaginative ways, in addition to facilitating the adornment of buildings with elaborate features, including undulating concrete walls and cantilevered roofs. MIMO’s reign in Florida came just as air conditioning was becoming more feasible for large commercial spaces. Nevertheless, many of the buildings were designed to capture the region’s sea breezes through concave exposures facing out to the sea and porous catwalks that adjoined rooms, allowing for greater air flow. This image showcases the modernist entrance of the Americana and its curvy flamboyance, with the repeated geometric pattern of the balconies exalting the aesthetic of mathematical precision and the large scale of the hotel.