Avgustov Province

This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and the local costume of the inhabitants.

A Battery of 70 at Gragoatá Fort

The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs, assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the Forte de Gragoatá, a fortress constructed in 1696 as part of the defenses of Rio de Janeiro.

Bessarabia Province

This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. The province of Bessarabia depicted on this card roughly corresponds to the territory of present-day Moldova.

Brazil

This map of Brazil is a Tallis map, identifiable by the scrolling on the borders and the finely-drawn scenes inscribed on the map. John Tallis and Co. was a British mapmaking firm that operated from roughly 1835 to 1860. The map was drawn and engraved by cartographer John Rapkin. Tallis maps were known for their accurate designs and numerous place names and geographical details, as well as for the use of shaded areas to indicate topographical features. The fine craftsmanship of the map can be seen in the color illustrations in the four corners showing “Boats on the Rio Negro” (upper left), “St. Catharina” (upper right), “Monte Video” and “Cape St. Antonio, Bahia” (lower left), and “Rio de Janeiro” (lower right).

Cathedral of St. Seraphim (1907), Southwest View, Viatka, Russia

This photograph of the Cathedral of St. Seraphim of Sarov in Viatka was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The city of Viatka, renamed Kirov in 1934, is located on the Viatka River, 900 kilometers east of Moscow. Founded in 1181 under the name "Khlynov," Viatka was brought into the Muscovite realm by the end of the 15th century. The town subsequently became a trading and administrative center in northeastern European Russia. By 1897 its population had reached 25,000. Located on the rail line between Nizhnii Novgorod and Perm', the city grew rapidly during the Soviet period. Its population now hovers around half a million. The most colorful of its architectural landmarks is the Cathedral of St. Seraphim, completed in 1907 to a design by the local architect Ivan Charushin. The structure has a bell tower on the west and chapels attached to the north and south facades. This ensemble displays a profuse array of cupolas, ornamental gables and arches outlined in white on red walls in imitation of 17th-century Muscovite architecture. It is dedicated to St. Seraphim of Sarov (1754-1833), a prominent Russian monastic canonized in 1903 with the support of Nicholas II.

Chambers of Bishop Joseph Zolotoy (1764-69), East Facade, Vologda, Russia

This photograph of the chambers of Bishop Joseph Zolotoy in Vologda was taken in 1995 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Before the founding of St. Petersburg in 1703, Russia depended on a northern route through the White Sea for trade with western Europe. One of the main centers on this route was Vologda, whose importance is reflected in architectural monuments such as this distinctive structure. Located in Archbishop's Court adjacent to the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, this residence was built for Archbishop Joseph in 1764-69 (architect unknown) and demonstrates the influence of secular palace design on religious institutions during the 18th century. The colorful decoration of the residence--the use of painted trompe-l'oeil rustication and other decorative elements on the main brick façade, itself painted red--represents a provincial adaptation of an ornamental approach to architecture prevalent in Muscovy at the end of the 17th century. The building has recently been carefully renovated, although little remains of the original interior, apart from a few magnificent tile stoves characteristic of 18th-century Russian palace interiors.

Map of Asiatic Russia

Weimar was the cultural and intellectual capital of Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the home of poets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. This 1822 engraved map by the Weimar Geographic Institute shows provincial boundaries, population centers, and the different nationalities of Siberia. Ethnic Germans from the Baltic region in the service of the tsarist government played prominent roles in the exploration of Siberia in the 18th century and the region remained an object of fascination to many Germans.

Chernigov Province

This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants.

Land of Chukotka and Kamchatka Region

This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants.

Colony of European Immigrants

The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph by Albert Richard Dietze is part of a set of 53 numbered, signed, and dated photos, taken between 1869 and 1878, from the album Scenes from the Interior of the Province of Espirito Santo [Vues de l' intérieur de la province of Espirito Santo] that was presented at the Universal Exposition of Paris in 1889. Dietze, a German immigrant to Brazil, recorded the early settlement of the state of Espirito Santo. Dietze asked the empress for financial assistance to publish the work in Europe, where it would create a favorable impression of Brazil and encourage immigration.