Palace of the Elector of Brandenburg

This birds-eye view map offers a detailed picture of the Berlin palace of the elector of Brandenburg as it appeared in 1688. The residence was part of a large fortress that Frederick William I (1620–88) ordered built following the end of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) in Germany. Construction began in 1650 under the direction of the architect and engineer, Johann Gregor Memhardt (1607–78), and continued for more than a quarter of a century. The complex, also known as the Berlin Fortress, had five city gates and 13 bastions. Frederick William I was elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia from 1640 until his death. Known as “the Great Elector,” he was responsible for reforms that laid the basis for the elevation of Prussia from duchy to kingdom under his son, Frederick III, elector of Brandenburg (1657–1713), who became King Frederick I of Prussia in 1701. The map is by Johann Bernhard Schultz, a medallion maker, engineer, and cartographer from Berlin, who died in 1695.

Map of the Kingdom of Aragon by Juan Bautista Labaña

This map is the oldest known image of Aragon, the first Spanish map produced according to scientific procedures, and the most important map for 17th- and 18th-century Spanish cartography. It became the basis for all subsequent maps of the region, and is the only one that was made using direct measurement and surveys. The map was created by order of the Deputation of the Kingdom of Aragon by cartographer Juan Bautista Labaña (1555–1624), who employed the triangulation method. In 1610–15, Labaña travelled around the country making the necessary observations from vertices established in towers and on mountain peaks. He described these researches in his Itinerario del Reino de Aragón (Itinerary of the Kingdom of Aragon), where he recorded all the readings used to create the map, the manuscript of which is preserved in the Leiden University library. The map was printed in Madrid on six copper plates in 1619–20. The style of drawing is sober, far removed from the ostentation and aestheticism of contemporary maps published in the Netherlands. Labaña represented the essential elements of the territory clearly and used easy-to-read calligraphy. Only two versions of the map are known to exist: the first is the original, drawn by Labaña and printed by Diego de Astor in 1617–20, from which several copies were made, and a second one that was corrected and enhanced by Tomas Fermin de Lezaun in 1777. The National Library of Spain copy is a print of Labaña's original plate, although with accompanying text by Lupercio Leonardo de Argensola added in the late 17th century by Aragonese printer Pascual Bueno. Labaña was born in Lisbon and was a mathematics teacher for King Don Sebastián. After Portugal was joined to the Spanish crown in 1580, he moved to Madrid, where he lived most of his life. In 1582, he was named professor in the Academy of Sciences, where he taught mathematics, cosmography, and geography. Labaña tutored the sons and nephews of King Philip III of Spain, who also named him senior cartographer and chronicler of the kingdom. The author of the accompanying text, the Spanish writer Argensola, was born in Huesca in 1559 and died in Naples in 1612. In 1599, Philip III named him senior chronicler to the crown of Aragon. Among his works were Anales de la historia de Aragón (Milestones of the history of Aragon) and the Declaración sumaria de la historia de Aragón (Summary declaration of the history of Aragon), which was used to complete the geographical information in this map.

A Modern Map of Spain

Nova Hispaniae Descriptio (A modern map of Spain) is the first map bordered by cartouches, one of the most attractive developments of 17th century Dutch cartography. Cartouches were used to supplement the geographical information provided by a map as well as to add aesthetic appeal. In this map, which is based on a plate made by Gerard Mercator (1512–94), the cartographic image is surrounded by plans, city views, and characters in the dress of the day. The top margin includes views of the cities of Alhama, Granada, Bilbao, Burgos, Vélez-Málaga, and Écija. In the bottom are shown Lisbon, Toledo, Sevilla, and Valladolid. In the bottom right corner is a Renaissance cartouche crowned by the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Spain, flanked with two seated male figures and decorated by three figureheads. On the sides, three female and three male figures in distinctive costumes represent the nobility, merchant, and peasant classes. In the bottom margin is a medallion with the portrait of King Philip III of Spain and an inscription with the king’s name. In the bottom left corner, the scale appears in a pedestal below the emblem of the publishing house. The publisher, Jodocus Hondius (1563–1612), was an acclaimed Flemish printer who lived in Amsterdam and specialized in the production of maps and globes. He was a friend of Gerard Mercator and edited his atlas. In 1604, Hondius purchased Mercator’s plates from his heirs and published a new edition of the atlas, which was constantly expanded and became quite popular in the 17th century. This map is not dated, but the portrait of King Philip III of Spain (1598–1621) and Hondius’s date of death suggest it was published around 1610.

Valentia Edetanorum, Plebs of Cid

This important early map, on four sheets, of the city of Valencia is by Tomas Vicente Tosca (1651–1723), a local priest, scholar, mathematician, cartographer, and theologian, who was a founder of the Novatores group, a scientific society established with the aim of challenging and renewing prevailing ideas and practices. Father Tosca’s most important book was Compendio Matemático (Mathematical compendium), a nine-volume work composed in 1707–15 that covered, in addition to mathematics and geometry, such subjects as astronomy, geography, seamanship, military architecture, optics, and perspective. The success of this work was such that several editions were made and it was translated into other languages, including German, French, and Italian. Tosca also designed and built a large geographic globe. Tosca’s map of Valencia, produced in 1704, provides detailed views of public and private buildings, streets, squares, and other features of the city. The top left corner of the map shows an allegory of the city, by Joseph Fortea, in which the matron holds the coat of arms of the city and carries a torch in her hand; a ribbon protrudes from her heart with the legend Ardet et lucet intus et foris (Burns and shines within and without). In the bottom corner, in a large baroque cartouche decorated with patterns relating to mathematics and the fine arts, is the key to the map or "Explanation of the notes." It has a long list of parishes, convents, schools, hospitals, palaces, houses, fish markets, and other places in the city. The scale, on the third sheet, is expressed as one to 1,200 Valencian palms (a unit of length equal to 14.7 centimeters).

Capturing Liaojiazhong and Seizing Rebel Leader Shi Sanbao

The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit Jean-Denis Attiret (1702–68), Bohemian Jesuit Ignatius Sichelbarth (1708–80), and the Italian Augustinian missionary, Jean-Damascène Sallusti (d. 1781). The engravings of the first set of 16 paintings were not produced in China but were executed in Paris, at that time home to the best European artisans working in this technique. The emperor even decreed that the work emulate the style of the Augsburg copper engraver Georg Philipp Rugendas the Elder (1666–1742), whose work he knew. Small-scale copies of the paintings by Castiglione and his Beijing colleagues were sent to Paris to be transferred on to copperplates, printed, and then sent back to China, along with the plates and prints. Later sets of engravings were executed in Peking by Chinese apprentices of the Jesuits and differ markedly in style and elaborateness from those of the Paris series. Qianlong's battle copper prints were just one of the means the Manchu emperor employed to document his campaigns of military expansion and suppression of regional unrest. They served to glorify his rule and to exert ideological control over Chinese historiography. In the history of Chinese art, copper-print engraving remained an episode. Seen in their political context, the Qianlong prints represent a distinct and exceptional pictorial genre and are telling examples of the self-dramatization of imperial state power. The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library holds a set of five series with a total of 64 prints. This is one of 16 prints depicting the 1795 campaign against and pacification of the Miao tribes, in which Qing dynasty forces battled an anti-Chinese uprising by indigenous peoples living in Guizhou and other provinces of southwestern China.

Recapturing Qianzhou

The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit Jean-Denis Attiret (1702–68), Bohemian Jesuit Ignatius Sichelbarth (1708–80), and the Italian Augustinian missionary, Jean-Damascène Sallusti (d. 1781). The engravings of the first set of 16 paintings were not produced in China but were executed in Paris, at that time home to the best European artisans working in this technique. The emperor even decreed that the work emulate the style of the Augsburg copper engraver Georg Philipp Rugendas the Elder (1666–1742), whose work he knew. Small-scale copies of the paintings by Castiglione and his Beijing colleagues were sent to Paris to be transferred on to copperplates, printed, and then sent back to China, along with the plates and prints. Later sets of engravings were executed in Peking by Chinese apprentices of the Jesuits and differ markedly in style and elaborateness from those of the Paris series. Qianlong's battle copper prints were just one of the means the Manchu emperor employed to document his campaigns of military expansion and suppression of regional unrest. They served to glorify his rule and to exert ideological control over Chinese historiography. In the history of Chinese art, copper-print engraving remained an episode. Seen in their political context, the Qianlong prints represent a distinct and exceptional pictorial genre and are telling examples of the self-dramatization of imperial state power. The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library holds a set of five series with a total of 64 prints. This is one of 16 prints depicting the 1795 campaign against and pacification of the Miao tribes, in which Qing dynasty forces battled an anti-Chinese uprising by indigenous peoples living in Guizhou and other provinces of southwestern China.

Capturing the Qianghuxiao Mountain Range

The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit Jean-Denis Attiret (1702–68), Bohemian Jesuit Ignatius Sichelbarth (1708–80), and the Italian Augustinian missionary, Jean-Damascène Sallusti (d. 1781). The engravings of the first set of 16 paintings were not produced in China but were executed in Paris, at that time home to the best European artisans working in this technique. The emperor even decreed that the work emulate the style of the Augsburg copper engraver Georg Philipp Rugendas the Elder (1666–1742), whose work he knew. Small-scale copies of the paintings by Castiglione and his Beijing colleagues were sent to Paris to be transferred on to copperplates, printed, and then sent back to China, along with the plates and prints. Later sets of engravings were executed in Peking by Chinese apprentices of the Jesuits and differ markedly in style and elaborateness from those of the Paris series. Qianlong's battle copper prints were just one of the means the Manchu emperor employed to document his campaigns of military expansion and suppression of regional unrest. They served to glorify his rule and to exert ideological control over Chinese historiography. In the history of Chinese art, copper-print engraving remained an episode. Seen in their political context, the Qianlong prints represent a distinct and exceptional pictorial genre and are telling examples of the self-dramatization of imperial state power. The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library holds a set of five series with a total of 64 prints. This is one of 16 prints depicting the 1795 campaign against and pacification of the Miao tribes, in which Qing dynasty forces battled an anti-Chinese uprising by indigenous peoples living in Guizhou and other provinces of southwestern China.

Capturing the Rebel Camp at Pinglong

The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit Jean-Denis Attiret (1702–68), Bohemian Jesuit Ignatius Sichelbarth (1708–80), and the Italian Augustinian missionary, Jean-Damascène Sallusti (d. 1781). The engravings of the first set of 16 paintings were not produced in China but were executed in Paris, at that time home to the best European artisans working in this technique. The emperor even decreed that the work emulate the style of the Augsburg copper engraver Georg Philipp Rugendas the Elder (1666–1742), whose work he knew. Small-scale copies of the paintings by Castiglione and his Beijing colleagues were sent to Paris to be transferred on to copperplates, printed, and then sent back to China, along with the plates and prints. Later sets of engravings were executed in Peking by Chinese apprentices of the Jesuits and differ markedly in style and elaborateness from those of the Paris series. Qianlong's battle copper prints were just one of the means the Manchu emperor employed to document his campaigns of military expansion and suppression of regional unrest. They served to glorify his rule and to exert ideological control over Chinese historiography. In the history of Chinese art, copper-print engraving remained an episode. Seen in their political context, the Qianlong prints represent a distinct and exceptional pictorial genre and are telling examples of the self-dramatization of imperial state power. The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library holds a set of five series with a total of 64 prints. This is one of 16 prints depicting the 1795 campaign against and pacification of the Miao tribes, in which Qing dynasty forces battled an anti-Chinese uprising by indigenous peoples living in Guizhou and other provinces of southwestern China.

The Campaign at Jielai

The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit Jean-Denis Attiret (1702–68), Bohemian Jesuit Ignatius Sichelbarth (1708–80), and the Italian Augustinian missionary, Jean-Damascène Sallusti (d. 1781). The engravings of the first set of 16 paintings were not produced in China but were executed in Paris, at that time home to the best European artisans working in this technique. The emperor even decreed that the work emulate the style of the Augsburg copper engraver Georg Philipp Rugendas the Elder (1666–1742), whose work he knew. Small-scale copies of the paintings by Castiglione and his Beijing colleagues were sent to Paris to be transferred on to copperplates, printed, and then sent back to China, along with the plates and prints. Later sets of engravings were executed in Peking by Chinese apprentices of the Jesuits and differ markedly in style and elaborateness from those of the Paris series. Qianlong's battle copper prints were just one of the means the Manchu emperor employed to document his campaigns of military expansion and suppression of regional unrest. They served to glorify his rule and to exert ideological control over Chinese historiography. In the history of Chinese art, copper-print engraving remained an episode. Seen in their political context, the Qianlong prints represent a distinct and exceptional pictorial genre and are telling examples of the self-dramatization of imperial state power. The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library holds a set of five series with a total of 64 prints. This is one of 16 prints depicting the 1795 campaign against and pacification of the Miao tribes, in which Qing dynasty forces battled an anti-Chinese uprising by indigenous peoples living in Guizhou and other provinces of southwestern China.

Capturing the Miao Village at Shilong

The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit Jean-Denis Attiret (1702–68), Bohemian Jesuit Ignatius Sichelbarth (1708–80), and the Italian Augustinian missionary, Jean-Damascène Sallusti (d. 1781). The engravings of the first set of 16 paintings were not produced in China but were executed in Paris, at that time home to the best European artisans working in this technique. The emperor even decreed that the work emulate the style of the Augsburg copper engraver Georg Philipp Rugendas the Elder (1666–1742), whose work he knew. Small-scale copies of the paintings by Castiglione and his Beijing colleagues were sent to Paris to be transferred on to copperplates, printed, and then sent back to China, along with the plates and prints. Later sets of engravings were executed in Peking by Chinese apprentices of the Jesuits and differ markedly in style and elaborateness from those of the Paris series. Qianlong's battle copper prints were just one of the means the Manchu emperor employed to document his campaigns of military expansion and suppression of regional unrest. They served to glorify his rule and to exert ideological control over Chinese historiography. In the history of Chinese art, copper-print engraving remained an episode. Seen in their political context, the Qianlong prints represent a distinct and exceptional pictorial genre and are telling examples of the self-dramatization of imperial state power. The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library holds a set of five series with a total of 64 prints. This is one of 16 prints depicting the 1795 campaign against and pacification of the Miao tribes, in which Qing dynasty forces battled an anti-Chinese uprising by indigenous peoples living in Guizhou and other provinces of southwestern China.