November 12, 2010

Spherical Map That Shows the North of the Santo Domingo Island and the Eastern Part of Canal Viejo of Bahamas

This early-19th century Spanish naval map shows the eastern Caribbean, from the northern coasts of Hispaniola (present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and Cuba to the Bahamas. The map was engraved by Fernando Selma (1752-1810), a well-known Spanish engraver who produced not only maps, but also portraits of notable Spaniards.

Features of the Mountainous Region North and West of Peking

This map by Otto Franz von Möllendorff (1848-1903) originally was published as one of two appendixes to an 1881 article by Möllendorff in the journal of the German Geographical Society. Möllendorff was a zoologist and German consular official whose primary interest was the animals of northern China and Central Asia. He used a number of existing maps, such as those by the British Admiralty, the Russian geophysicist Hermann Fritsche, and the Polish-Russian military officer and scientist Nikolai Przewalski, as well as his own surveys and observations, to produce this highly detailed map–one that greatly expanded cartographic knowledge of the region. The map was engraved by the German cartographer Richard Kiepert (1846-1915), the son of the famed geographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818-99). Möllendorff was the brother of Paul Georg von Möllendorff (1847-1901), a famous German linguist and diplomat who was an adviser to the Korean king Kojong and the author of a system for romanizing the Manchu language.

Confrontation Between Black Demonstrators and Segregationists at a "White Only" Beach

This photograph documents one episode in the struggle over civil rights that raged throughout the American South in the early 1960s. In the summer of 1964, national civil rights leaders hoped to push for integration of public areas in St. Augustine, Florida, including its bathing beaches. An especially violent confrontation over public access occurred on June 25, when white men attacked blacks on Butler Beach in defiance of the police, who were trying to keep the groups apart. The confrontation drew the attention of national civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as of prominent white supremacists. King and Governor Farris Bryant were among the leaders who spoke in Jacksonville at an event in support of civil rights. On the other side, segregationists such as Reverend Connie Lynch, Richard "Hoss" Mannussey, and Klansman J.B. Stoner organized segregationist rallies and marches, including a Fourth of July march by the Ku Klux Klan. Police seized a number of guns, knives, chains, and other weapons from white demonstrators. More than three hundred arrests took place in St. Augustine in June and July of 1964, resulting in an eventual truce called by white supremacist leaders. In this image, a group of male African-American demonstrators has waded into the water while a large group of whites has organized to confront them. The image captures the tenseness of the scene just before the violent clash of June 25. After police broke up the fighting, 10 whites and 10 blacks were arrested.

Anatomical Fugitive Sheets of a Skeleton, Male Figure and a Female Figure

These woodcut anatomical sheets of male and female figures, published in Germany in 1573, reflect the state of anatomical knowledge at that time. The explanatory texts on each sheet are in Latin, with some names of anatomical parts also given in Greek. The sheets use movable flaps that can be raised to show cut-aways of the viscera attached beneath. The sheets have accessory figures that depict various parts of the body, with corresponding explanatory texts.

A Garland of New Songs: Young Love among the Roses; My Nanie, O; God Save the King; Rule Britannia; Dear Is My Little Native Vale; General Wolfe's Song

Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a critical success, and its poems in both Scots and English, on a range of topics, established Burns’s broad appeal. While building his literary reputation, Burns worked as a farmer, and in 1788 he was appointed an excise officer in Ellisland. He spent the final 12 years of his life collecting and editing traditional Scottish folk songs for collections including The Scots Musical Museum and A Select Collection of Original Scotish [sic] Airs for the Voice. Burns contributed hundreds of Scottish songs to these anthologies, sometimes rewriting traditional lyrics and setting them to new or revised music. Burns’s works were widely distributed throughout Scotland and beyond in chapbooks. These small, inexpensive eight-page booklets were often illustrated with woodcuts and printed on coarse paper. Chapbooks (called garlands if they included songs) were a popular form of entertainment in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the principal way that ordinary people encountered songs and poetry. They were distributed by traveling "chapmen" who sold the books at markets and door-to-door in rural areas. Chapbooks often included poems by more than one author, and the authors were not identified. This book, from the G. Ross Roy Collection at the University of South Carolina, includes Burns’s "My Nanie, O."

A Garland of New Songs: Tweed Side; My Nanie, O; Highland Laddie; Up in the Morning Early; Flowers of the Forest

Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a critical success, and its poems in both Scots and English, on a range of topics, established Burns’s broad appeal. While building his literary reputation, Burns worked as a farmer, and in 1788 he was appointed an excise officer in Ellisland. He spent the final 12 years of his life collecting and editing traditional Scottish folk songs for collections including The Scots Musical Museum and A Select Collection of Original Scotish [sic] Airs for the Voice. Burns contributed hundreds of Scottish songs to these anthologies, sometimes rewriting traditional lyrics and setting them to new or revised music. Burns’s works were widely distributed throughout Scotland and beyond in chapbooks. These small, inexpensive eight-page booklets were often illustrated with woodcuts and printed on coarse paper. Chapbooks (called garlands if they included songs) were a popular form of entertainment in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the principal way that ordinary people encountered songs and poetry. They were distributed by traveling "chapmen" who sold the books at markets and door-to-door in rural areas. Chapbooks often included poems by more than one author, and the authors were not identified. This book, from the G. Ross Roy Collection at the University of South Carolina, includes Burns’s "Up in the Morning Early" and "My Nanie, O."