November 23, 2016

Vermont, from Actual Survey

This map of Vermont first appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition of Guthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. Amos Doolittle (1754–1832), a copperplate engraver in New Haven, produced the map on a scale of 7.5 miles to one inch (12 kilometers to 2.4 centimeters). The map extends from the border with New Hampshire formed by the Connecticut River westward to the border with New York State, part of which is formed by Lake Champlain, and from the Canadian border in the north to the Massachusetts state border. The map includes the seven Vermont counties that existed before the 1790s: Addison, Bennington, Chittenden, Orange, Rutland, Windham, and Windsor. Also featured are Vermont’s townships, rivers, lakes, ponds, roads, and mountains such as the “Range of the Green Mountains.” Dartmouth College, at Hanover on the Connecticut River, is prominently marked. Some natural features in New York are shown, including Lake George and “Hudsons River.” Longitude is measured in degrees east of Philadelphia. Largely self-taught, Doolittle was originally a jeweler and silversmith who first attempted engraving while fighting at Lexington and Concord during the American Revolutionary War. He went on to specialize in maps for atlases and illustrations for books. The map has a decorative scene of trees and shrubs around the title cartouche in the lower-right corner. Mathew Carey (1760–1809) was an immigrant from Ireland who worked as a publisher in Philadelphia, specializing in maps, atlases, other works of geography, Bibles, novels, and schoolbooks. In 1795 he issued the first atlas published in the United States, the American Atlas. International copyright agreements did not exist at the time, so early American publishers such as Carey were able to reuse European sources in order to print more extensive atlases and texts. Carey combined William Guthrie’s European maps, originally published in London after 1770, with updated maps of the United States to produce Guthrie’s Geography Improved. Doolittle developed a strong working relationship with Carey. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Siege of York, 1781. Map of York in Virginia, Including the Attacks and the Encampments of the Combined French and American Army

This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was drawn in 1781 by Querenet de la Combe, a cartographer and lieutenant colonel in the French Royal Corps of Engineers in the army of the French commander, General Rochambeau, during the Revolutionary War. The British had captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia. There the British under General Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) were forced to surrender after what proved to be the climactic battle of the Revolutionary War. The map depicts the area at which General Cornwallis established his base of operations by constructing fortifications in York (known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) and the peninsula of Gloucester Point during the siege of Yorktown. It shows British lines of defense, American and French parallels, troop positions, military headquarters, hospitals, and fortifications on Gloucester Point. Moore House (marked M. Moor on the map), on the York River and accessible to both sides, is where the Articles of Capitulation were drafted after the battle on October 18. They were signed by both sides the next day. The map includes references describing British redoubts and a “Nota” with some explanation of the map’s colors. The map is oriented with north to the upper right. The scale is in toises, an old French unit measuring about 1.95 meters. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

A New Map of the Western Parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina

Partie occidentale de la Virginie, Pensylvanie, Maryland et Caroline Septle (The western parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina) is a hand-colored map by cartographer, author, and illustrator Georges-Louis Le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV. It is a translation of the 1778 map of the same territory by Thomas Hutchins (1730–89) that accompanied the pamphlet, A Topographical Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina. A native of New Jersey, Hutchins fought with the militia in the French and Indian War. He became an expert frontiersman. In 1766 he was given a regular commission as an engineer in the British army and assigned to survey the western regions of Britain’s North American empire. When the American Revolution began in 1775, Hutchins was in London for the publication of his work and was imprisoned on charges of treason. He escaped to France, from where Benjamin Franklin, American minister to Paris, helped him return to America. When news of Hutchins’s predicament reached Georges-Louis Le Rouge in Paris, Le Rouge came to Franklin seeking either to be the sales agent for Hutchins’s work or to bring out a French edition of Hutchins’s pamphlet and map. At the time, Le Rouge was an important publisher of North American maps. He had already translated charts from English into French, possibly for use by the French navy. The two men sharply reduced the size of Hutchins’s original map, deleted some of the notes, and included a legend corresponding to descriptions in the pamphlet. With the help of Franklin, Hutchins was named the first official geographer of the United States upon his return to America in 1781. The map shows state boundaries, towns, forts, roads, Indian villages, Indian paths or trails, rivers and creeks, waterfalls, portages, springs, mountain passes, and deposits of minerals. It also shows a few estates, homes of several frontier residents, the boundary line against further westward colonial expansion set by Lord Fairfax, and military bounty lands. The map includes descriptive text and historical notes on the area. Scale is given in miles and leagues. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Map of the Area Near Hampton

This topographic pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of Hampton, Virginia, and its surroundings was created in 1781. The area shown on the map extends from the Chesapeake Bay westward to the mouth of the James River. The map shows the mouths of the Back (i.e., Black), James, and Elizabeth Rivers, as well as the towns of Hampton and Newport News. Other features include fortifications, houses in the area, roads, windmills, a Corps de garde (guardhouse) near Old Point Comfort, and vegetation. Scale is given in toises, an old French unit measuring about 1.95 meters. The map has a watermark in the shape of a fleur-de-lis, surmounting a scroll with three bars. North is oriented to the upper right, and relief is shown by hachures. Hampton was founded in 1610, and has claims to being the longest continuously occupied English settlement in the present-day United States. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Batteries from West Point to High on the York River

This hand-drawn pen-and-ink manuscript map was created during the American Revolutionary War, possibly in 1781. It shows the artillery batteries located at West Point, Virginia. At this time “West Point” referred to an area within the colonial town of Delaware, which by 1870 would become the town of West Point. The batteries are situated at the point where the Pamunkey and Matapony (present-day Mattaponi) Rivers meet to form the York River. The batteries are marked with letters A, B, C, and D, and their ranges and fields of fire marked. The map also shows houses, cultivated fields, ferries, vegetation, and channels and soundings on the Pamunkey and Mattaponi Rivers. Relief is shown by hachures. The index in the bottom right-hand corner indicates the number and size of the guns mounted at each battery. Scale is given in toises, an old French unit measuring about 1.95 meters. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

The State of Maryland, from the Best Authorities

This map of Maryland appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition of Guthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. The map extends from the Delaware Bay westward to northeastern Virginia and indicates the state’s principal towns, roads, and counties, as well as mountains, rivers, and the bordering states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia. It shows the following counties: Anne Arundel (spelled “Ann Arundel” on the map), Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Dorchester, Frederick (“Frederic”), Harford, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George’s (“Prince George”), Queen Anne’s (“Queen Ann’s”), Saint Mary’s, Somerset, Talbot, Washington, and Worcester. Allegany County, formed in 1789 from the western part of Washington County, is missing. The map was engraved by William Barker (active 1795‒1803). Samuel Lewis (1753 or 1754‒1822), a Philadelphia draftsman, included an inset entitled “Continuation of the Potowmac River, from Fort Cumberland” that portrays the continuation of the Potomac into Western Maryland. The City of Washington and Baltimore appear as clusters of black markings. Mathew Carey (1760‒1839) was an immigrant from Ireland who worked as a publisher in Philadelphia, specializing in maps, atlases, and other geographical works. In 1795 he issued the first atlas published in the United States, the American Atlas. Early American publishers such as Carey were not restricted by international copyright agreements, and reused European sources to print extensive atlases and texts. Carey combined William Guthrie’s European maps, originally published in London after 1770, with updated maps of the United States, such as the Maryland map presented here, to produce Guthrie’s Geography Improved. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Map of Queens Village or Lloyd Neck in Queens County on the North Side of Long Island in the Province (Now State) of New York

This pen-and-ink manuscript map dating from 1781 is the result of reconnaissance work carried out by American forces during the Revolutionary War and likely was drawn shortly before the start of the Yorktown campaign. The map depicts the terrain, houses, and military fortifications of a small area on the north side of Long Island, in the present-day state of New York. Now called Lloyd Harbor, the area was originally called, in 1685, Queens Village; the name Lloyd Neck was also used. The map marks ponds and bodies of water, such as Fresh Pond, Huntington Bay, Salt Meadows, and Long Island Sound. It depicts the residences of Joseph Lloyd, Henry Lloyd, John Lloyd, James Lloyd, Joseph Conkling, Cornelius Conkling, and a Mr. Denton. The map is drawn on watermarked paper and includes compass points for orientation. The scale is about 1:2,000. The British captured New York in September 1776, and to maintain their hold on Long Island, they built several fortifications, including Fort Franklin on Lloyd Neck. Fort Franklin does not appear here, but the map does identify a “fort block house built by ye enemy,” i.e., the British, as well as “an inlet where whale boats & barges may be secreted.” In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia. There, the British under General Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) were forced to surrender in what proved to be the climactic battle of the Revolutionary War. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Charleston, Capital of Carolina

This rudimentary sketch map, Charles-Town, Capitale de la Caroline (Charleston, capital of Carolina), drawn by an unknown French cartographer in 1780, shows the city of Charleston, South Carolina, enclosed by walls with the Ashley River to the left and the Cooper River to the right. Fort Johnson appears at bottom right, guarding the southwest entrance to the harbor. Shute’s Folly is the triangular island east of the city. Some sources say that “folly” referred to a marshy Carolina sea island; Joseph Shute owned the land in the 1730s. Castle Pinckney was built on the island in 1808‒11 and it was one of a few horseshoe forts still in active use during the American Civil War of 1861‒65. Relief is shown by hachures. 1780 and 1781 were eventful years for Charleston in the Revolutionary War. The British siege of the city began on April 2, 1780, and Major General Benjamin Lincoln offered its unconditional surrender on May 14. Charleston had repulsed previous attacks by the British in 1776 and 1779. The British victory resulted in 3,000 American soldiers being taken prisoner and in the capture of a large store of munitions. At this time, General Charles Cornwallis was in command of more than 8,000 British troops in the South. The main British force marched north to help counter an expected French campaign in New York State, but the guerilla tactics of the Patriot forces in South Carolina in 1780‒81 ultimately caused British forces to withdraw to Virginia, leading to the Yorktown campaign of 1781. Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown on October 19, 1781, ironically to the same general, Benjamin Lincoln, who the previous year had been forced to surrender the city of Charleston. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Map of the City of Charlestown, its Entrenchments, and the Siege by the English in 1780

This hand-drawn French pen-and-ink and watercolor map from 1780 is a detailed plan of Charlestown (present-day Charleston), South Carolina, during the British siege, which lasted from early April 1780 until the surrender of the city on May 14 of that year. The map shows American defenses and British parallels, entrenchments, and batteries, such as Coming’s Point (here spelled “Cummin’s Point). Coming’s Point was one of a series of defense works that were constructed on the edge of the harbor when it became evident that the British attack would come from the south and west. From the end of March a whole regiment was encamped at Battery Number One on Cummins Point. The maps shows streets such as Broad Street, Church Street, Queen Street, King Street, Meeting Street, Orange Street, and Tradd Street, all of which exist to the present day and retain their 18th century names. The “New Church” depicted is Saint Michael’s Church, which was constructed between 1751 and 1761 and sits on the original site of Saint Philip’s Church, built in 1681 and demolished in 1727, some years after it was damaged in a hurricane. The “Old Church” depicted is the second site of Saint Philip’s Church, which was constructed there in 1723. The map also shows the State House (the site of the present-day Charleston County Courthouse), arsenal, markets, and the exchange. Scale is given in toises, an old French unit of measurement equal to about 1.95 meters. A lengthy descriptive text provides a chronology of the construction of the British works and the subsequent capitulation, a description of the condition and extent of the American fortifications when the British arrived outside Charleston, and various battle statistics. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

To His Excellency General Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armies of the United States of America, This Plan of the Investment of York and Gloucester Has Been Surveyed and Laid Down

This hand-colored map was created in 1782 by Major Sebastian Bauman of the New York, or Second, Regiment of Artillery, which served in the Revolutionary War under General George Washington, to whom the map is dedicated. It was engraved in Philadelphia by Robert Scot (circa 1744–1823), who in 1793 became the first engraver of the United States Mint. Yorktown, Virginia, had only been occupied by British forces under General Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) since August 1, 1781. Cornwallis had planned to make Yorktown his supply base for an extensive Virginia campaign, but by the middle of August, French naval forces under Admiral Comte de Grasse were sailing towards the Chesapeake Bay and General Washington’s Patriot army began to march south. Following the siege and battle at Yorktown, the British were forced to surrender after what proved to be the climactic engagement of the Revolutionary War. The map depicts Yorktown and the peninsula of Gloucester Point between October 22 and 28, 1781. It shows British and American troop positions, British defenses, fields of fire, the first and second parallels, the headquarters of generals Washington and Rochambeau, the quarters of generals Nelson, Lincoln, Lafayette, Knox, Steuben, Clinton, and various French officers, ships in the York River, and “The Field where the British laid down their Arms.” American troop detachments are listed by the colonies from which they came, including Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode Island, and New Jersey. The map also shows Moore House on the south bank of the York River, where the Articles of Capitulation were drafted on October 18. Leaders of the American, French, and British forces signed them the next day. “References to the British Lines” at the upper-left corner is a key to the British artillery and naval operations. An extensive explanation in a decorative cartouche below the map details the chronology of the American and French siege operations and the actions of the forces of all three nations. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.