The Battle of the Monongahela


This manuscript pen-and-ink map shows the disposition of troops at the beginning of the Battle of Monongahela, which took place on July 9, 1755, in the second year of the French and Indian War. Determined to drive the French out of western Pennsylvania, the British had sent a force of 2,000 army regulars and colonial militia commanded by General Edward Braddock to capture Fort Duquesne, located at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh. After an arduous march through northern Virginia and western Maryland, Braddock turned north into Pennsylvania. On July 9, Braddock and a column of 1,300 men crossed the Monongahela River and began heading toward the fort, some ten miles (16 kilometers) downstream. They were attacked by a small detachment of French soldiers and several hundred Indian allies, including Ottawas, Miamis, Hurons, Delawares, Shawnees, and Iroquois. The British suffered a disastrous defeat: approximately 500 soldiers, including Braddock himself, were killed, and more than 450 were wounded. Among the survivors was Colonel George Washington, an aide to Braddock and commander of the Virginia Regiment.

Last updated: May 24, 2017