Stone Hieroglyphics, near Aipe, on the Left Bank of the Magdalena, Province of Neiva


This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a large rock carved with hieroglyphic inscriptions near Aipe, on the left bank of the Río Magdalena, in the Province of Neiva (a present-day municipality in Huila Department), southwest Colombia. The Aipe and Natagaima (also called Pijao) were the indigenous peoples of this area. They used to gather at this location for a large fair, where they traded for salt, blankets, idols, and gold ornaments. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups. Paz was born in Almaguer in the province of Cauca. He joined the Colombian army at a young age and showed exceptional skills as a cartographer and painter. In 1853 he took over the role of draftsman of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission) formerly held by Henry Price (1819–63). The commission, which began work in 1850, was tasked with studying the geography, cartography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). Paz worked under Agustín Codazzi (1793–1859), the Italian-born geographer and engineer who co-founded and directed the commission. In 1859, at Codazzi’s death, Paz was among the collaborators who took on the task of reviewing, completing, and publishing the work that the Comisión Corográfica had undertaken since 1850. As a draftsman, Paz executed watercolors and drawings that were very exact and strove to represent the places and people of Colombia in a naturalistic and objective style. These pictures constitute invaluable documentary records for the history and culture of Colombia. They also provided information pertinent to drawing up the maps that were one of the main objectives of the Comisión Corográfica. More than 90 paintings by Paz are preserved at the National Library of Colombia.

Date Created

Subject Date


Title in Original Language

Provincia de Neiva. Piedra con jeroglíficos, que se halla cerca de Aipe, en la orilla izquierda del Magalena, tierra de los antiguos Natagaimas, en donde se verificaba una gran feria, a la cual concurrian los Chibchas de la serranía, llevando sal, mantas, idolos, I adornos de oro labrado, recibiando en cambio el oro en polvo que traian los indios comaroanos

Type of Item

Physical Description

1 painting : watercolor ; 23 x 31 centimeters

Last updated: November 23, 2016