Inhabitants of the Capital, Province of Pamplona
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows a group of people by the church in Pamplona (in present-day Norte de Santander), northeastern Colombia. The city of Pamplona was founded in the mid-16th century and quickly developed into an important political, religious, and administrative center. It was a mining center, had a university, and played a role in Colombia’s independence movement in 1810. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art in New York when still a youth. He returned home in 1827 and served in the military, where he mastered topographical drawing. Political turmoil in Venezuela prompted him to move to New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama) in 1849. There he became the first draftsman for the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), which was co-founded and directed by Agustín Codazzi (1793–1859), an Italian-born geographer and engineer. The commission, which began work in 1850, studied the geography, cartography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of New Granada. In 1850−52 Fernández painted about 30 watercolors in the provinces northeast of Bogotá: Tunja, Pamplona, Ocaña, Socorro, Vélez, and Santander. These works, which are now in the National Library of Colombia, portray the diverse ethnic, racial, and social groups and the varied physical landscape of New Granada. Fernández was succeeded on the commission by Henry Price (1819−1863) and later Manuel María Paz (1820−1902). He returned to Caracas aged 43, where he lived most of the rest of his life. In 1873 he produced his most famous work, a portrait of Símon Bolívar that appears on Venezuelan coins.
Title in Original Language
Habitantes de la capital
Type of Item
Watercolor on paper ; 21 x 30 centimeters
Last updated: November 29, 2016