Rewards for Obedience, Punishment for Disobedience


Premios de la obediencia, castigos de la inobediencia (Rewards for obedience, punishment for disobedience) by Raymundo Azero (1739–94) is one of the first books printed in New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). Azero studied at the College of San Buenaventura in Santa Fe de Bogotá and was ordained a Franciscan priest. He later served as professor of theology at the college and as its director. He was also a missionary and local administrator. Azero’s missionary experience unfolded against the background of the pacification campaigns ordered by Archbishop Antonio Caballero y Góngora following the Comunero Revolt of 1781. This insurrection against the Spanish authorities, which began in reaction to the heavy taxes imposed by King Charles III, gave expression to new ideas of freedom and self-government that later would inspire the 19th-century South American wars of independence against Spanish colonial rule. Premios de la obediencia, castigos de la inobediencia is a doctrinal exhortation, in Spanish and Latin, arguing for submission to the Spanish crown. It was presented as a sermon, preached by Azero in the main square of the capital on February 1, 1782, after the execution of the Comunero leaders. Azero’s message was intended to bolster the established public order and subordination to the monarch; obedient subjects would be generously rewarded and wrongdoers severely punished for their transgressions. His text was widely disseminated and appeared in print barely two months after the executions.

Date Created

Subject Date

Publication Information

D. Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros, Santa Fé de Bogotá

Title in Original Language

Premios de la obediencia, castigos de la inobediencia

Type of Item

Physical Description

54 pages ; 19 centimeters

Last updated: March 19, 2013