Critical Study of What India Says, Whether Accepted by Reason Or Refuted


Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Alberonius, 973–1048 AD; 363–439 AH) was an 11th-century Muslim polymath whose works and scholarly interests spanned the physical and natural sciences, mathematics, astronomy, geography, history, chronology, and linguistics. Al-Biruni was born in Kath, Khuwarazm, in present-day Uzbekistan, and died in Ghazni, in what is today east-central Afghanistan. He wrote more than 120 works and is considered the founder of Indology for his detailed description of 11th-century India. The crater Al-Biruni on the moon is named after him. Tahqig ma lilhind min maqoolah maqboolah lilaql aw marthoolah (literally, Critical study of what India says, whether accepted by reason or refused, but also known as the Indica) is a critical, sincere, and concise view of Hinduism and Indian culture. It came about after al-Biruni’s trip to India as a court astrologer in the expedition of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (died 1030 AD), and after studying with Indian sages and collecting Indian books.

Last updated: January 6, 2017