This large-format illuminated Timurid copy of the Qurʼan is believed to have been produced in northern India in the 15th century. The manuscript opens with a series of illuminated frontispieces. The main text is written in a large, vocalized polychrome muhaqqaq script. Marginal explanations of the readings of particular words and phrases are in thuluth and naskh scripts, and there is interlinear Persian translation in red naskh script. The fore-edge flap of the gold-tooled brown leather binding is inscribed with verses 77 through 80 from surah 56 (Sūrat al-wāqi‘ah). The seal of Sultan Bayezid II, who ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512, appears on folio 8a. There is an erased waqf (bequest) statement and stamp of Sultan ‘Uthmān Khān, who ruled from 1618 to 1622, on folio 3a.

Date Created

Subject Date

Title in Original Language


Type of Item

Physical Description

Dimensions: 31 centimeters wide by 40 centimeters high. Foliation: 551


  • Walters Ms. W.563

Last updated: April 6, 2015