Dagestani Types


In April 1904 and again at the beginning of 1905, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled to Dagestan in the Caucasus region. Dagestan was ethnically one of the most diverse territories of the Russian Empire. Shown here is a group of five women identified as Avars, the largest ethnic group in Dagestan. They are photographed against a background of mountainous terrain with an aul, or village, of flat-roofed stone houses. The Avars were adherents of Sunni Islam and maintained strict dress codes. The women’s heads are covered with scarves and swathed in long shawls. The woman on the right is the most richly dressed. She is wearing golden jewelry, including necklaces and long earrings. Her gown has a printed decorative pattern. The wooden bench at this cleared viewing site appears in other photographs in this series of ethnic portraits. The hillside on the left shows the straight cut of a major road. Prokudin-Gorskii used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. Some of his photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.

Date Created

Subject Date

Title in Original Language

Типы Дагестана

Additional Subjects

Type of Item

Physical Description

Glass negative (presented as a digital color composite)


  • Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographic work survives primarily in two forms: 1,901 black-and-white triple-frame glass plate negatives, made with color separation filters, which Prokudin-Gorskii used to make color prints and lantern slides; and 12 albums of sepia-tone prints, made from the glass negatives, which Prokudin-Gorskii compiled as a record of his travels and studies. The Library of Congress purchased the glass plate negatives and the albums from the Prokudin-Gorskii family in 1948. In 2004, the Library of Congress had digital color composites made from all the surviving glass negatives using a software algorithm to automatically align the color components. As with most historical photographs, title and subject identifications are corrected and enhanced through new research. Current information on the collection is at http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/prok/.

Last updated: November 1, 2016