Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Section of a Column on the Facade of the Main Arch


This photograph of a detail of the entrance structure at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s campaign in India, the Bibi Khanym ensemble was designated the city’s main mosque and named in homage to Timur’s senior wife, Sarai Mulk Khanym (bibi meaning “lady” or “mother”). Intended to be one of the largest mosques in the Islamic world, the ensemble included not only the main mosque, but also a grand structure that served as an entrance to the primary courtyard. Although the structure was severely damaged over the centuries in an active seismic zone, much ornamentation survived, including this column with a “twist rope” shaft attached to the brick walls of the main entrance arch. The enormous size of the column is evident from the turbaned figure standing next to it. Also visible is a decorative band of ceramic tiles, as well as interlocking brick patterns on the walls.

Date Created

Subject Date

Publication Information

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Title in Original Language

Самаркандския древности. Медресэ Биби-Ханым. Часть колоны в фасаде главной арке

Type of Item

Physical Description

1 photographic print : albumen


  • Illustration in: Turkestan Album, Archaeological Part, 1871-1872, part 1, volume 1, plate 73.

Last updated: September 30, 2016