Lieutenant Colonel William J. Hardee


William Joseph Hardee (1815–73) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. Born in Savannah, Georgia, he graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1838 and served in the Mexican War (1846‒48). During the Civil War, he commanded the Army of Tennessee and fought in the battles of Shiloh, Perryville, and Stones River. He was in command of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida during General William T. Sherman’s March to the Sea. Hardee and his troops withdrew from Savannah before Sherman’s occupation of the city and fought in the Battle of Bentonville before surrendering in Greensboro, North Carolina, in April 1865. He is best known for writing Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics for the Exercise and Maneuver of Troops When Acting as Light Infantry or Riflemen (1861), known as Hardee’s Tactics, which was the preferred reference manual for infantry soldiers in both the North and South during the Civil War. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a photographer himself. The album was a gift to the emperor from Edward Anthony (1818‒88), another early American photographer who, in partnership with his brother, owned a company that in the 1850s became the leading seller of photographic supplies in the United States. Dom Pedro may have acquired the album during a trip to the United States in 1876 when he, along with President Ulysses S. Grant, opened the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Brady was born in upstate New York, the son of immigrants from Ireland. Best known for his photographs documenting the battles of the American Civil War, he began his career in 1844 when he opened a daguerreotype portrait studio at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Streets in New York City. Over the course of the next several decades, Brady produced portraits of leading American public figures, many of which were published as engravings in magazines and newspapers. In 1858 he opened a branch in Washington, DC. The album, which also contains a small number of non-photographic prints, is part of the Thereza Christina Maria Collection at the National Library of Brazil. The collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II throughout his life and donated by him to the national library. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America.

Date Created

Subject Date

Publication Information

Edward Anthony, New York

Type of Item

Physical Description

1 photographic print : carte-de-visite, albumen paper ; 8.5 x 5.5 centimeters


  1. Michael R. Hall and Spencer C. Tucker, “Hardee, William Joseph,” in Spencer C. Tucker, editor, American Civil War: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection (Santa Barbara, C.A.: ABC-CLIO, 2013).

Last updated: March 30, 2016