A Female Hard Labor Convict in Arm and Leg Shackles
This photograph is one of 74 views taken in July 1891 by Aleksei Kirillovich Kuznetsov (1845‒1928) and contained in the album Tipy i vidy Nerchinskoi katorgi (Views and inhabitants of Nerchinsk hard labor camps). The Nerchinsk katorga was part of the katorga (forced labor) system of imperial Russia, located in the province of Transbaikalia (present-day Zabaykal’skiy Kray), near the Russian border with China. The katorga was administered by the Ministry of Interior and included prisons at Akatuy, Kara, Aleksandrovsk, Nerchinskii Zavod, and Zerentuy, all of which are depicted in the album. Common criminals and political prisoners alike were sent to these camps to work the nearby mines and their associated smelting plants. Gold was chiefly mined at Kara, silver and lead at Akatuy. Kuznetsov himself was a political prisoner, sentenced in 1873 to permanent exile in Siberia and six years of hard labor at the Kara mines. After completing his sentence, Kuznetsov received permission to settle in Nerchinsk, where he founded a local cultural society. In 1889 it moved to Chita. It is not clear how he received permission to visit the prisons of the Nerchinsk katorga and to create this graphic record of the prisoners and the conditions in which they lived and worked. The album is held by the National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg and was digitized for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project in the early 2000s.
Title in Original Language
Закованная с.-каторжная въ ручныя и ножныя кандалы
Type of Item
1 photograph ; 14 x 10 centimeters
- Both female convicts and women following their husbands into exile were subject to sexual abuse in the marching convoys by which convicts and exiles were transported to Siberia. Regulations according to which men and women were to be separated in the convoys were not enforced, and many women were forced into prostitution. Conditions in locations of exile were no better; the wives were forced to support themselves and their families through prostitution in the absence of other possibilities for employment. In some locations, such as Sakhalin Island, prostitution was organized by the camp administration itself.
- Chains came to symbolize state tyranny in educated circles of Russian society, especially after Decembrist Nikolai Bestuzhev began making jewelry out of the discarded chains of his fellow exiles. Bestuzhev’s creations found many imitators, and “Decembrist jewelry” achieved a high degree of popularity among the Russian intelligentsia.
- Daniel Beer, The House of the Dead: Siberian Exile under the Tsars (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016).
Last updated: October 31, 2017