Wine Classic


Jiu jing (Wine classic) was the first extant comprehensive and systematic Chinese monograph on the technology of yeast production and wine brewing. It was written by Zhu Hong (1050‒1125), courtesy name Yizhong, style name Wuqiuzi, later style name Dayinweng. Born in Wucheng (present-day Huzhou, Zhejiang), Zhu Hong received his jinshi degree in the third year (1088) of the Yuanyou era of Song. He served as court gentleman consultant and at the Imperial Archives. Leaving his official post in the first year (1102) of the Chongning era, Zhu Hong moved to Hangzhou and devoted himself to wine making and writing. Jiu jing was written between that year and the fourth year (1114) of the Zhenghe era, before he was drafted and appointed a doctor of medicine. The work has three juan. Juan 1 describes the history of wine. Juan 2 discusses 13 kinds of yeast in three groups, with names of components for each yeast type and methods of the processes. Juan 3 considers processes and important points of wine brewing, such as steeping rice in water, allowing it to turn sour, washing rice with running water, obtaining the right acidity and consistency, using yeast, preparing active fermentation, and so on. The work also discusses various brewing methods for making “white sheep” wine, dihuang wine (wine using Chinese foxglove root), chrysanthemum wine, and grape wine. Song shi yi wen zhi (History of the Song, art and literature records) included this work in one juan. Shuo fu (Boundaries of stories) only included its first juan. This copy has no preface or table of contents, but it has the entire text and it is a Song edition; therefore, it is of great value. The taboo words were observed in the text and the names of engravers provide evidence that it was printed in the Zhejiang region in early Southern Song (circa 1127‒77). The copy was held by notable Qing book collectors, including Qian Qianyi, Ji Zhenyi, Xu Qianxue, Wang Shizhong, and others.

Last updated: June 7, 2017