Some Considerations on the Political State of the Intermediate Countries between Persia and India


Some Considerations on the Political State of the Intermediate Countries Between Persia and India is a short tract by Edward Hamilton Stirling (1797–1873), a British explorer and East India Company civil servant. It is based on an 1828 overland journey that Stirling took from Persia via present-day northern Afghanistan and back to India. Stirling joined the East India Company in 1816 and rose to become a collector in the Agra Division of the Bengal Presidency. When he was granted leave in 1828, he decided to use the time to explore Persia and Central Asia, with the ultimate goal of returning to India via the overland route through Herat, Balkh, and Kabul. He left India in February 1828 and arrived in Bushire (present-day Bushehr, Iran) a month later. From there he travelled overland via Shiraz to Tehran, where he met with the British envoy to Persia, Sir John MacDonald, who asked him to investigate “the conditions, capabilities, and military features of those countries by which a European army from the North or West could penetrate to India…" Stirling eventually completed his journey, thereby becoming the first European to return alive from northern Afghanistan. In this tract, he reported on the social and political conditions in the regions he visited and identified three possible invasion routes, in addition to the “high road through the middle of Persia.” Upon his return to India, he found that he had been replaced and demoted, and that his findings were ignored by the company’s political officers. Incensed by such treatment, Stirling returned to England in 1834. He published Some Considerations in London the following year.

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Subject Date

Publication Information

Whittaker and Company, London


Title in Original Language

Some considerations on the political state of the intermediate countries between Persia and India

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Physical Description

80 pages ; 20 centimeters


  1. Lee, J. Leveen. "The Journals of Edward Stirling In Persia and Afghanistan, 1828‒29. Notification of Future Publication." Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 24 (1986).

Last updated: August 17, 2016