Legislation of His Highness the Most Pious and Genuine Sovereign of all Ungro-Vlahia, Lord, Lord Iōannēs Geōrgiou Karatzas, Voivode


Nomothesia tou hypsēlotatou kai eusevestatou authentou kai hēgemonos pasēs Oungrovlachias, kyriou kyriou Iōannou Geōrgiou Karatza voevoda (Legislation of His Highness the most pious and genuine sovereign of all Ungro-Vlahia, Lord, Lord Iōannēs Geōrgiou Karatzas, Voivode) is a 19th century legal code for Romania. It was written at the command of the Phanariot Ioannes Georgiou Karatzas (also seen as Caradja and Caragea), who was prince of Wallachia in 1812‒16. The Phanariots were Greeks living in Constantinople who became influential under the Ottomans.  Legiuirea Caragea was written by logothetes (senior administrators) Athanasie Hristopol and Nestor Predescu Craiovescu, together with the noblemen Constantin Balaceanu and Radu Balaceanu. Begun in 1816, this legal code was published in 1818, in Romanian and Greek. The Greek edition was printed in Vienna, in Joannes Bartholomeu Tzweck’s printing house. The intention was to create by its promulgation a modern legal code for the Romanian lands. It is composed of six parts: rules of civil and commercial law (the first four parts), criminal law (the fifth part), and procedural law (the sixth part), organized according to provisions on people, property, bonds, wills, and procedure. For the first time in Romanian legislation, judicial abuse became a crime. The punishments for various offenses were the same as in the older laws. Major punishments included mutilation by cutting off the hand or nose, beating or flogging, exposure in the public market, prison, and exile. Legiuirea Caragea remained in force until December 1, 1865, when it was replaced by the Civil Code.

Date Created

Subject Date

Publication Information

Joannes Bartholomeu Tzweck, Vienna

Title in Original Language

Νομοθεσία του υψηλοτάτου, και ευσεβεστάτου, Αυθέντου και Ηγεμόνος πάσης Ουγγροβλαχίας, Κυρίου, Κυρίου Ιωάννου Γεωργίου Καρατζά Βοεβόδα


Type of Item

Physical Description

136 pages : illustrations


  1. Loredana-Maria Ilin-Grozoiu, “The constitutional philosophy and practice in the Romanian Principalities in 1765-1832,” Revista de Stiinte Politice, number 47, 2015. http://cis01.central.ucv.ro/revistadestiintepolitice/files/numarul47_2015/28.%20Loredana%20Ilin%20304-315.pdf.
  2. P.M. Kitromilides and Anna Tabaki, editors, Greek-Romanian Relations: Interculturalism and National Identity (Athens: Institute for Neo-Hellenic Research, The National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2004).

Last updated: March 23, 2017