Aulus Persius Flaccus (known as Persius, 34–62) was a Roman poet who came to Rome at a young age and attended grammar lectures by the famous teacher Remmius Palaemon, the rhetorician Verginius Flavus, and the Stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Cornutus. A good student, he read widely, availed himself of the opportunities of the literary world, and became friendly with such poets as Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus) and Caesius Bassus. He also wrote satirical sketches or ridicules. He died when he was 28 years old before publishing his works. Only six complete ridicules survived and were eventually published. In these skits, Persius criticizes superstition, laziness, miserliness, and some of the behavior of the literati or rich people, and talks about freedom, the gods, and the qualities of public men. This edition of Persius’s Satyrae (Satire), from the collections of the National Library of Romania, is marked as completed on January 17, 1492, although it was printed in Venice in 1493. It includes commentary by Giovanni Britannico, originally from Breschia (died 1518), and Bartholomeo della Fonte (1445–1513), a humanist and poet. The work has annotations of the Latin text in black ink, mostly in the first half. On the flyleaf is a note written by Constantin Karadja, the Romanian diplomat and bibliophile: “Cet incunable est, avec une édition des Heroïdes d'Ovide, le seul ouvrage connu qui soit sorti des presses de Barth. de Ragazonibus. Rare” (This incunabula, with an edition of Ovid’s Heroides, is the only known work that is from the press of Barth. of Ragazonibus. Rare). Little is known about the Venetian printer, Bartholomaeus de Ragazonibus.

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Bartholomaeus de Ragazonibus, Venice


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93 pages ; 29 centimeters


  1. Henry Walters and Leo S. Olschki, Incunabula Typographica: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century (1460–1500) in the Library of Henry Walters (Baltimore, MD: Walters Art Gallery, 1906).

Last updated: March 23, 2017