Annals of Oman to 1728


Annals of Oman to 1728 is a translation into English of the portions dealing with the history of Oman of a much longer work on Islamic history by Sihan ibn Saʻid al-Izkiwi entitled Kashf al-ghummah al-jāmiʻ li-akhbār al-ummah (Removing consternation: Compilation of the history of the nation). The work in its entirety covers seven volumes in the published edition. The translator is Charles Edward Ross (1836‒1913), a British official in the Persian Gulf. Little is known of the author, al-Izkiwi. Scholars who have studied the text have had no success filling in the details of his life and career. The work was considered an anonymous composition until a signed manuscript in the author’s own hand was discovered in an Algerian library and published in 2012. The book opens with a list of the ruling imams of Oman from 750 to 1728. Ross’s translation includes chapters on the pre-Islamic history of Oman and the driving out of the Persians from the country in the eighth century. It moves on to the introduction of Islam, the Umayyad, Abbasid, and Carmatian periods, local dynasties, and decline of order and civil war in the decade 1718‒28, when the narrative ends. Ross served as political officer in Oman from 1872 until 1891. He was the longest-serving political representative of the government of British India in that post. The British Residency in Bushir (present-day Bushehr, Iran) performed the functions of an embassy; it represented British interests in Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the Trucial States. Annals is followed by several short historical and ethnographic documents. The first is a short history of Oman from 1728 to 1883 based on a manuscript by Hamid ibn Muhamad ibn Ruzayq (1783‒1873), translated by Anglican priest George Percy Badger (1815‒88) as abridged and updated by C.E. Ross. This is followed by “Note on the Tribes of Oman” by S.B. Miles (1838‒1914), which was later supplanted by his larger work The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf (also presented in the World Digital Library). The third appendix is “Note on the sect of Ibadhiyah of Oman,” by C.E. Ross. Finally, the volume includes “On the tenets of the Ibadhi sect,” which is an extract translated into English from Kashf al-ghummah.

Date Created

Publication Information

Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta


Type of Item

Physical Description

119 pages ; 22 centimeters


  1. J.B. Kelly, Arabia, the Gulf, and the West (New York, Basic Books, 1980).
  2. “Ross, Edward Charles,” in Paul J. Rich, Creating the Arabian Gulf: The British Raj and the Invasions of the Gulf (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009).
  3. Salih, Muhammad Habib. Kashf al-ghummah al-jāmiʻ li-akhbār al-ummah (Musqat: Wizarat al-Turath wa-al-Thaqafah, 2012).

Last updated: October 29, 2015