Pushto Grammar


Qavaʼid-i Pushtū (Pushto grammar) is a linguistic work, produced by Pushto Tolanah (Pushto Academy), an Afghan governmental literary organization that was founded in 1938 in Kabul to promote Pushto language, literature, and history. This particular manual was written in Persian by Muhammad Aʻzam Ayazi, a member of Pushto Tolanah, and published in 1939 for both Pushtun and non-Pushtun readers interested in learning the Pushto language. The manual is 224 pages long and is organized into a detailed table of contents, acknowledgements, and 14 sections, each of which is divided into numerous chapters. Section 1 (pages 1‒10) is a detailed description of the Pushto alphabet. Section 2 (pages 10‒35) is devoted to discussion of the morphology of the language. Section 3 (pages 36‒51) discusses Pushto adjectives, their various types and usage. Section 4 (pages 51‒67) deals with pronouns, their use, and agreement in the language. Section 5 (the longest section, pages 67‒146) is about verbs, their various forms, usage, and conditions. Section 6 (pages 146‒55) deals with adverbs in Pushto. Section 7 (the shortest section, pages 155‒58) discusses prepositions. Section 8 (pages 158‒61) deals with verb phrases. Section 9 (pages 161‒64) discusses vowels. Section 10 (pages 164‒73) deals with compound words. Section 11 (pages 173‒79) discusses syllabification. Section 12 (pages 179‒81) deals with punctuation marks. Section 13 (wrongly headed “section 14,” pages 182‒212) deals with sentence formation. Section 14 (pages 213‒22) has a list of Pushto infinitives alongside their Persian meanings. The concluding pages list corrections to the text.

Last updated: September 30, 2016