Order of Battle on Western Front. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918


World War I ended with the entering into effect of the armistice at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918. This map, drawn up at the headquarters of the General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, shows the order of battle at the time the fighting stopped. Allied forces are arrayed in a wide arc stretching from the Swiss border to the North Sea, with the Belgians and British on the left, the French in the center and on the right, and the Americans occupying a central position between two French armies. The British armies included divisions from Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, while the French armies included colonial troops, especially from Morocco. Divisions from Portugal, Poland, and Italy were also present. The final chapter of the war began on September 26, when the British, French, Belgian, and American armies attacked along a wide front with 123 divisions, with 57 divisions in reserve. Defending were 197 German divisions, of which only 51 were classed by Allied intelligence as fully battle worthy. The German Army at first fought tenaciously, falling back to successive defensive lines, but faced with certain defeat and revolution at home, the German authorities had no choice but to sue for peace. Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate and went into exile in the Netherlands. The map shows armies and their commanders, corps within armies and their commanders, and divisions within corps. Divisions are shown by their numbers, with black used to indicate “fresh,” and red “tired.” Tables on the map show German divisions destroyed since July 16, the status of all divisions on the Western front, and the status of U.S. divisions. The map is from the collection made by General Tasker Howard Bliss (1853–1930) during his service with the United States Army in World War I and at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.

Last updated: September 22, 2015