Mirror of the World


Mirʼāt al-arz̤ (Mirror of the world) is a text on geography, written for Afghan students. The work begins with a discussion of general topics, such as the shape of the Earth and its rotational motion and revolution about the sun, the great circles, and geographical longitude. It then presents information on each of the continents, listing the area of each and “well-known” countries and cities located therein. Each of the listed countries is further discussed by a presentation of boundaries in the cardinal directions, its capital, the name of the ruler, comments on the method of governance, its economic wealth, and the size of its army. The book concludes with a glossary of common geographical terms, such as gulf, peninsula, and so forth. It contains no maps or illustrations. The work was published in 1905‒6, during the reign of Habibullah Khan (ruled 1901–19). The author is not listed.

Last updated: September 30, 2016