Green Emerald and Red Ruby


ʻAbd al-ʻAziz ibn Ahmad Qurashi was a prolific Indian author of the early 19th century. He composed works on Qur’anic exegesis, hadith, and medicine. Zumurrud akhḍar wa yāqūt aḥmar (Green emerald and red ruby) is one of ʻAbd al-ʻAziz’s medical works. The author starts with afflictions of the brain and related therapies. He then proceeds to afflictions of the eyes, the ears, and organs of the body before concluding the work with a discussion of various fevers and of related remedies. In his introduction, ʻAbd al-ʻAziz praises Hippocrates and Galen as servants of the science of medicine. He lists several medical texts, including Tuḥfat al-Mu’minīn (Offering to the pious) by Hakim Mu’min Tunkabuni (flourished in the 17th century) and al-Ṭibb al-akbar (The great [text] on medicine) by Muhammad Arzani (flourished late 17th–early 18th centuries), as sources. ʻAbd al-ʻAziz describes his text as an abbreviation of another of his medical works, “The Elixir,” which had remained incomplete because of unnamed troubles that drove the author to Multan (in present day Pakistan). The author states that he completed this work in Dhū al-Qaʻda 1228 (March–April 1866) in Multan. The manuscript copy contains a colophon in Persian which states that it was completed on the morning of Muharram 13, 1301 AH (November 13, 1883). The present manuscript contains copious marginal notes in Persian. It is written in clear naskh, with rubrications, and catchwords in Arabic.

Date Created

Subject Date

Title in Original Language

زمرد أخضر وياقوت أحمر

Type of Item

Physical Description

115 folios ; 255 x 165 millimeters



  1. A.Z. Iskandar, A Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts on Medicine and Science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library (London: Wellcome Historical Medical Library, 1967).

Last updated: November 27, 2015