Definitions of Illnesses


Muhammad Akbar, commonly called ʻUrf Muhammad Arzani, who died at Delhi in Rabiʻ al-Thani 1134 AH (January−February 1722), is the author of numerous medical texts in Persian and Arabic. He was active in Mughal India, although he appears to have received part of his medical training in Shiraz in Persia. Ḥudūd al-Amrāḍ (Definitions of illnesses) consists of an alphabetized list of medical ailments along with their definitions. The medical terms are mainly Arabic but include a fair number of Latin and Greek terms as well (e.g., mania, melancholia, and synochus−a type of fever). The name of the scribe, ʻAbd al-Hamid ibn Miyansahib, as well as that of the patron, Hazrat-i Makhdum Sahib, appear in the colophon, which is in Persian. The manuscript is undated.

Date Created

Subject Date

Title in Original Language

حدود الأمراض

Type of Item

Physical Description

228 x 137 millimeters



  1. A.Z. Iskandar, A Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts on Medicine and Science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library (London: Wellcome Historical Medical Library, 1967).

Last updated: May 26, 2017