The Failure of the German Offensive at Kaunas


This print showing a battle scene is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of a Russian reporter for the newspaper Early Morning, September 12, 1914: “Local diplomatic circles received a message relayed through Copenhagen that an attempted advance by East Prussian troops on Kaunas suffered a decisive setback. The detachments of General Rennenkampf broke the individual advancing units of the German army with powerful attacks, causing the German offensive an enormous loss. Now the Germans are hastily pulling back the front line, and occupying a waiting position.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often depicted narratives from a historical event, literature, or a religious tale, were used to make such stories accessible to illiterate people. These expressive prints had a wide range in tone, from humorous to instructive to sharp political and social commentary. The images were clear and easy to understand, and some of the pictures were serialized, predecessors of the modern comic strip. Prints could be reproduced inexpensively, and were thus a way for the masses to display art at home. Initially, this artistic style was not taken seriously by the upper classes, but by the end of the 19th century, lubok was so well-regarded that it inspired professional artists. During World War I, lubok informed Russians about events on the frontlines, bolstered morale, and served as propaganda against enemy combatants.

Last updated: June 9, 2015