Afghanistan and Its Neighboring Countries


This map of Afghanistan and its neighbors was printed in multiple editions by the publishing house of Carl Flemming in Glogau, Germany (present-day Głogów, Poland). The areas covered by the map were the site of an intense rivalry between Great Britain and Imperial Russia during the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The borders of Afghanistan changed repeatedly during the latter part of the 19th century: the border between Baluchistan and Afghanistan was redrawn with the establishment of the Durand Line in 1893, and the borders between Afghanistan and Russian Turkestan to the north and with Persia to the west changed as well. The issuing of new editions of this map would have been complicated by these shifting boundaries. An 1890 printing of the map credits the German cartographer Friedrich Handtke (1815−79) with the original design. The map was published as number 44 of the Generalkarte (general maps) published by the Carl Flemming firm. Its designation “general” distinguishes this map from those used for educational purposes, as well as from those that were used for specialized scientific purposes.

Last updated: September 30, 2016