A Complete Portrayal of the Earth


This 1795 impression of a woodcut based on Oronce Fine’s 1534 heart-shaped map of the world is attributed to a cartographer from Tunis named Hajji Ahmad. At first glance, the map’s accompanying Ottoman Turkish text appears to be a captivating, first-person account of Hajji Ahmad’s remarkable odyssey across the Mediterranean. Upon closer inspection, cartography scholars have questioned the map’s authenticity and authorship. The text contains errors, and European sources such as Giovanni Battista Ramusio’s Delle Navigationi et Viaggi (Travels and voyages) appear to have influenced the geographical details of the map. Most likely it was printed for commercial purposes by a group of Venetian cartographers that included Nicolò Cambi and Michele Membré, the official Turkish translator for the Venetian Republic. Whatever its true provenance, the map highlights the remarkable cross-cultural influences in the early modern Mediterranean world, especially among Tunis, Venice, and Istanbul.

Date Created

Subject Date

Publication Information

Pinelli, Venice

Title in Original Language

Kemâliyle Naks Olunmus Cümle Cihan Numûnesi


Additional Subjects

Type of Item

Physical Description

1 woodcut map ; 92 x 91 centimeters


  • Scale approximately 1:37,500,000
  • Text states the map was translated into Turkish in 967 (October 1559 to September 1560)

Last updated: September 18, 2015