Commentary on The Analects of Confucius


Rongo (Analects) is famed as the collection of the words and deeds of Confucius. As the most cherished scripture of Confucianism, the book greatly influenced the culture of China and neighboring nations. It is said to have been introduced to Japan around the fifth century. The first published edition of Rongo in Japan was made in Sakai, a city in present-day Ōsaka Prefecture, in the 19th year of the Shōhei period (1364), and is known as the Shōhei version. The wood blocks of the first edition disappeared in early days. The copy presented here is a reprinted version, which seems to have been published in the late Muromachi period (16th century). The red marks and punctuation marks are assumed to have been added at that time.

Last updated: January 3, 2018