General Map of European Turkey, Greece and the Ionian Islands


Adrien-Hubert Brué (1786−1832) was a French geographer and cartographer who as a young man accompanied the explorer Nicolas Baudin on his 1800−1803 voyage to New Holland (Australia). Brué returned to France to become an important geographer, associated with the Institut Geographique de Paris and geographer to the king. His Grand atlas universel (Large universal atlas) was first published in 1816 and issued in revised and updated editions in 1825, 1830, and 1838. Shown here is Brué’s map of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, Greece, and the Ionian Islands. The Ottoman territories in Europe were divided into 36 sanjaks, or administrative districts, of which six were in Greece. These districts are marked with colored ink, and their capitals indicated by underlining. Major roads are marked with black. Five distance scales are provided: common leagues, marine leagues, Turkish agashes, miles, and German miles. Greece declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1821, and the Greek war of independence continued until 1832. Many people in France, Britain, and Russia were highly sympathetic to the Greeks and closely followed events in the country.

Last updated: September 18, 2015