An Enclosed Garden of the Climes


Hadíkatu-l Akálím (An enclosed garden of the climes) is a compilation of geographic and historical information by Murtaz̤á Ḥusayn Bilgrāmī (circa 1729−95), also known as Sheikh Allahyar Usmani. Bilgrāmī was employed as munshi (secretary) to Captain Jonathan Scott, Persian secretary to Warren Hastings (1732−1818), the first British governor-general of India. Scott commissioned Bilgrāmī to write the book, which is mainly a work of geography but which also includes information on history, biography, and literature. It emphasizes Afghanistan, India, and Iran, but Europe and other parts of the world are covered to some extent. Much of the book consists of extracts from older works. The work is especially valuable as a source on events, including battles between the British and local rulers, that occurred during Bilgrāmī’s lifetime. This lithographic print edition was produced in 1879. Lithographic printing was invented in Europe in the late-18th century and spread widely on the Indian subcontinent from the early 19th century onward, its popularity stemming from the relative ease with which it could be used to reproduce different scripts not based on the Latin alphabet.

Date Created

Subject Date

Publication Information

Naval Kishore Publishing House, Lucknow


Title in Original Language

حديقت الاقاليم /‏ ‏تأليف لطي مورخ همه‌دان باهر فن واقف حالات روزگار کهن مرتضى حسين صاحب المخاطب به اله‌يار عثمانى بلگرامى

Type of Item

Physical Description

697 pages : lithographic printing ; 33 centimeters

Last updated: September 30, 2016