At the Universal Peace Congress in Stockholm


The Universal Peace Congresses were international meetings to promote peace that took place in different European capitals in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The congresses established liberal pacifism as a distinct system of thought in European politics and a serious force in international relations for several decades. Religious peace groups, labor organizations, government officials, authors, and other notables attended these congresses, whose attendance grew until World War I, when they were discontinued because of conflicting loyalties among the delegates. The first notable peace congress was held in London in 1843. The first officially titled Universal Peace Congress took place in Paris in 1889. At the third congress in Rome in 1891, Danish peace activist and parliamentarian Fredrik Bajer (1837–1922) established the Permanent International Peace Bureau (PIPB), a centralized organization of peace groups that advocated for disarmament, international courts of justice, and mandatory arbitration of disputes between states. The PIPB was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1910. Pictured here is a group of attendees to the Eighteenth Universal Peace Congress in Stockholm, Sweden, on August 1, 1910. Their identities are unknown. The photograph is preserved in the archives of the League of Nations in Geneva. The archives were inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 2010.

Date Created

Subject Date

Type of Item

Physical Description

1 photograph ; 19.5 x 25.3 centimeters


  1. Nobel Prize, "Permanent International Peace Bureau – History.
  2. “The Stockholm Peace Congress and the Progress of the Peace Movement,” The Advocate of Peace (1894–1920), vol. 71, no. 8 (August and September 1909).

Last updated: May 24, 2017