The Seven Things to Overcome (Incomplete)


This work was included in Tian xue chu han (First collection of heavenly studies) printed in 1629. The author was Pang Diwo (the Chinese name of Diego de Pantoja, 1571–1618), one of the closest collaborators of the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci. After Ricci’s death in 1610, three Jesuit missionaries remained in China, Nicolò Longobardi (1566–1654 or 1655), Sabatino de Ursis (1575–1620), and Pantoja. Pantoja had come to Beijing with Ricci in 1601 to serve as his assistant. In his missionary activities, Pantoja followed Ricci’s style of interacting with Chinese scholars and officials, spreading knowledge of the Western world, and discussing Christianity and Confucianism. Like Ricci, Pantoja played an important role in introducing Western technology and cartography to China. In the years between 1583 and 1610, Pantoja and his fellow missionaries interacted with at least 137 high- and middle-level officials, some of whom converted to Christianity. Pantoja was expelled from China in 1617 as a result of the increasing tensions between the Chinese imperial court and the missionaries, and he died in Macao at age of 47. The missionaries were greatly helped by Chinese scholars and officials, such as Xu Guangqi, Li Zhizao and Yang Tingjun (1557–1627). Presented here is one of Pantoja’s representative works, written in Chinese and published in Beijing in 1614. In it he expounds on the seven cardinal sins of Christianity, wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony, and on the seven corresponding virtues needed to conquer these sins, patience, charity, diligence, humility, chastity, kindness, and temperance. He compared the Christian virtues to such Confucian virtues as benevolence and respect. But Pantoja condemned Buddhist doctrines, such as reincarnation. The work was reviewed and edited by others, and prefaced by Yang Tingjun, Zheng Yiwei (1573–1620), Xiong Mingyu (1580–1650), and others, reflecting his good relations with Chinese collaborators.

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4 juan


  • Included in Tian xue chu han (First collection of heavenly studies)
  • Only prefaces and 1st page of juan 1 are included in the WDL presentation.

Last updated: April 8, 2014