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Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tartar District, Ordzhonikidze Street #26, House (Late 19th Century), Perm', Russia
This view of a wooden house at No. 26 Ordzhonikidze (formerly Monastyrskaia) Street, in the Tatar district of Perm', was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, it was the center of a large merchant community, of which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Irtysh River, Ferry Crossing at Bol'sherech'e, Russia
This photograph of the Irtysh River at Bol'sherech'e was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The Irtysh, one of Siberia's mighty rivers, is in fact a tributary of the still greater Ob' River. The Irtysh originates in the extreme northwest part of China, near the Mongolian Altai Mountains. Over its length of 4,248 kilometers, it passes through Kazakhstan and western Siberia before its confluence with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pay Off of Spec—the Good Old Times
In the American circus, the spectacle, or “spec,” developed as a procession that took place around the hippodrome track inside the big top, or circus tent, featuring as many of the performers and animals as the circus director was able to costume. Traced back to the earliest circuses in America, the spec was originally a lavish performance of literary or historical tales intended to entertain and edify the audience. The costumes created for specs were often exotic, representing cultures from all corners of the globe. The costumes also could be ...
Church of the Ascension (St. Theodosius) (1903-10), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Perm' Church of the Ascension in the name of St. Feodosii was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city's merchant community gave substantial donations for church construction. The donor for ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Products of Mexico and Central America
This black-and-white sketch map showing the products of Mexico and Central America was prepared for publication in the Bulletin of the Pan American Union. It is now preserved in the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States, successor organization to the Pan American Union. Typed or written on the map are the locations of centers of both agricultural and mineral production. The map shows mineral production located mainly in Mexico, with asphalt, coal, gold, lead, petroleum, precious stones (opals), quicksilver (mercury), and silver listed. Mexico is also shown ...
The Lincoln Bible
On March 4, 1861, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney administered the oath of office to Abraham Lincoln using a Bible provided by William Thomas Carroll, clerk of the Supreme Court, because Lincoln’s family Bible was packed with other belongings that still were en route to Washington from Springfield, Illinois. In the back of the velvet-covered Bible, along with the seal of the Supreme Court, the volume is annotated: "I, William Thos. Carroll, clerk of the said court do hereby certify that the preceding copy of the Holy Bible is ...
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Gribushin Mansion, Built around 1900, Perm', Russia
This view of the Gribushin House at No. 13 Pokrovskaia (now Lenin) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city was the center of a prosperous merchant community in which the Gribushins were ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Near East
This 1952 map by the Army Map Service of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provides a broad overview of the Near East, the geographic region traditionally thought of as encompassing the countries of southwest Asia, including Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Israel, and Jordan, and the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. In addition to political borders, the map shows lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, marshlands, cities by population, pipelines, railroads, and pumping stations. Above the key is a glossary of topographic terms with transliterations and translations into ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Middle East Countries: Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Saudi-Arabia
This map of the Middle East, originally published in August 1950 and revised in February 1955, was issued by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, Air Photographic and Charting Service, Military Air Transportation Service (MATS), of the United States Air Force. In addition to Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, it shows the eastern parts of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium of Sudan as well as parts of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Many borders on the map, particularly on the Arabian Peninsula, are shown as still undetermined. Territories shown ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of St. Nicholas (1705), South Facade, Detail, Nyrob, Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nyrob (northern part of Perm' Territory) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated near the Kolva River some 160 kilometers north of Solikamsk, Nyrob is first mentioned in historical sources in 1579. Because of its remote location, the settlement was chosen by Tsar Boris Godunov in 1601 as the place of exile for the boyar ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Yegoshikha Cemetery, Church of the Dormition (1905), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the entrance gate and the Church of the Dormition at the Egoshikha Cemetery in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. The first settlement was located on the small Egoshikha River, near its confluence with the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Painting 111
Manolo Millares was a self-taught artist born in 1926 in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain. Shown here is his Cuadro 111 (Painting 111), made some time after 1960, an abstract work in startlingly vivid tones of green, purple and black. Millares was influenced by Surrealism from the late 1940s and attracted to the works of Klee and Miró. In that period, he began making abstract pictograms inspired by the Guanches, the indigenous Canaries people, and the pre-Hispanic culture of the islands, and he was ...
Infertile Woman II
Mujer infecunda II (Infertile woman II) is a late work by the Canary Islands artist Antonio Padrón Rodríguez (1920−68). The works of this painter’s last years are characterized by intense use of color and abstract expressionism, although here he has also used some dark somber tones. The image presents a fertility ritual, perhaps being performed by a woman seeking to become pregnant. She is a metaphor for the earth and the struggle to wrest growth from the islands, with their periods of drought. It is an image of ...
The Green Lightning
El rayo verde (The green lightning) is a late work by the Canary Islands artist Antonio Padrón Rodríguez (1920−68). He was born and lived most of his life in Gáldar, Gran Canaria, and many of his works reflect a strong sense of Canary location, customs, and people. He is linked to the Luján Pérez school, named for religious sculptor José Luján Pérez (1756−1815), who inspired a tradition of artists working in various media and focused on local culture, identity, and the position of Canary people in the world ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume 33, Part 1, 1969
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
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The Most Truthful Method of Distinguishing the Ibadites from the Kharijites and The Gift from Heaven on the Judgment of Shedding Blood
Sālim ibn Ḥammūd ibn Shāmis al-Siyābī (1908−93) was an Omani scholar, poet, historian, and judge. He was born in Ghāla, in the state of Bawshār in eastern Oman. A self-taught scholar, al-Siyābī memorized the Qur’an at age seven and went on to study Arabic language classics, including Ibn Malik’s Alfiyah, a 1,000-line poem about Arabic grammar rules. Al-Siyābī was also a prolific writer, and was the author of as many as 84 works, according to Sultān ibn Mubārak al-Shaybānī, who categorized al-Siyābī’s body of work ...
Interposition Resolution by the Florida Legislature in Response to Brown v. Board of Education, 1957, with Handwritten Note by Florida Governor LeRoy Collins
In 1957, the Florida State Legislature passed a resolution in opposition to the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, the Topeka, Kansas, case that ended legal segregation in public education. Racial segregation was originally found to be constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in the landmark Plessy v. Ferguson case in 1896. The decision laid the foundation for what became known as Jim Crow laws by declaring segregation legal if the facilities were “separate but equal.” The Brown decision removed that foundation, and many ...
Florida's Canal Main Street
Interest in constructing a water route across the Florida peninsula goes back to the colonial rule of the Spanish and the British and continued when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. The earliest American surveys for a possible canal in Florida were undertaken in the wake of excitement surrounding the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the first significant work on a cross-Florida canal as part of New Deal public works programs in Florida. After much debate, construction on route ...
Killing Time
Highways to the southern states of the United States opened up during the second decade of the 20th century, allowing men and women from around the country to see the unique sites of Florida's interior, away from the cities on the east and west coasts. After the completion of the highway from Montreal to Miami in 1915, the number of automobile tourists increased dramatically. The original “tin can tourists” of the 1920s pioneered camper travel, and the practice became ever more popular after World War II, as young families ...
Wakulla Springs Glass-Bottom Boat Tour Chant by Luke Smith
The sound recording presented here features a chant recited by Luke Smith at the 1981 Florida Folk Festival in White Springs, Florida. Smith, a longtime guide on the Wakulla River, sings about the underwater environment and summons fish to the boat. His chant is reminiscent of African-American spirituals and field hollers common throughout the Deep South of the United States. Alligators, snakes, rare birds, and native exoticism are part of Florida’s tourism industry. Narrated boat tours at sites such as Wakulla Springs State Park, located at the spring south ...
Waters of Destiny
The systematic drainage of the Florida Everglades began in earnest in 1905. Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, then Florida’s governor, committed significant state funds and solicited federal assistance in order to reclaim from underutilization the vast swamplands south of Lake Okeechobee. The ultimate goal of the Everglades reclamation was to access rich “muck” soil, covered in many areas by a thin layer of freshwater. Muck soil consisted of thousands of years of organic material accumulated on top of limestone bedrock. The muck made for ready and productive topsoil, but was quickly ...
Whip Cracking Demonstration—L.K. Edwards, Junior
Fredric Remington introduced Americans to the “Florida Cracker” cowboy in the August 1895 issue of Harper’s Magazine. Remington sketched and wrote about the fiercely independent breed of Florida cattlemen, who herded cattle and battled rustlers along the frontier. For Remington and many of his contemporaries, the Florida they knew resembled a frontier as much as any region of the United States in the late 19th century. The term “cracker” derives from the sound created by the popping of a bull whip. Florida crackers carried whips and used them, along ...
Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda
This map of Murchison Falls National Park, the largest national park in Uganda, was issued in 1956 by the Lands and Surveys Department of the Uganda Protectorate. Shown are the park boundaries, roads and tracks, ranger stations, control points, and the park headquarters and safari lodge. The scale of the map is 1:250,000. The park is bisected by the Victoria Nile, which flows westward from Lake Victoria toward Lake Albert, which it enters in a swampy estuary at the western edge of the park. At Murchison Falls, the ...
Explosion Crater Area, Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda Protectorate
This map of the Explosion Crater Area of Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda was issued in 1955 by the Survey, Land and Mines Department of the Uganda Protectorate. Shown are main roads, “existing motorable roads,” proposed tracks, water courses, ranger posts, and the locations of numbered signboards. Shading is used to indicate different types of terrain, including open grassland, scattered bushes, forest, and water. The site of a pavilion, built to commemorate the visit to the park on April 30, 1954, of Queen Elizabeth II and her husband, the ...
Bugondo, Uganda
This map of Bugondo is a 1976 reprint, with minor alterations, of a map originally issued in 1963 by the Uganda Department of Lands and Surveys, based on aerial photography carried out in December 1959−January 1960 by the Department of Technical Cooperation (Directorate of Overseas Surveys) of the British government. Uganda was a British protectorate from the 1890s until independence in 1962. Bugondo Sub-County is located in the southwestern part of Soroti District and is bordered on the north and west by Lake Kyoga and Lake Kojweri. Sites indicated ...
Bubeke, Uganda
This map of Bubeke, Kalangala District, Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was compiled and drawn by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Department of Technical Cooperation in the British government and issued in 1960 by the Uganda Department of Lands and Surveys. It is based on aerial photography and field survey data. Bubeke Island is located in the western part of Lake Victoria, south of Entebbe. Nearby islands, also shown on the map, include Bunjazi, Buyange, Bukasa, and Nkese. The map shows rocks, piers, landings, and other features important for navigation on ...
Masiwa, Uganda
This map of Sagitu, Lolui, and Masiwa islands in Lake Victoria was issued in 1963 and copyrighted by the government of newly independent Uganda. The map was compiled and drawn by the British Directorate of Overseas Surveys in cooperation with the government of the Uganda Protectorate. It is based on aerial photography carried out in 1952 and 1960, on a British Admiralty chart from 1955, and on field survey data supplied by the protectorate’s Department of Lands and Surveys. The map scale is 1:50,000. Masiwa and the ...
Sigulu, Uganda
This map of the Sigulu region, in Namayingo District in eastern Uganda, was issued by the Lands and Surveys Department of Uganda in 1963, and is based on aerial surveys carried out in 1948, 1952, and 1960, and on field survey data. The map shows the heavily forested islands of Bugana and Sigulu in the northeastern part of Lake Victoria and the adjacent coastal areas in Uganda and Kenya. Rocks, a navigational hazard, are indicated. An index grid in the lower left identifies adjoining sheets to this detailed survey map ...
Budadiri, Uganda
This map of the Budadiri region of Uganda was issued by the Uganda Department of Lands and Surveys in 1963 and is based on field survey data and on aerial surveys carried out in 1959 and 1960. Budadiri is in the eastern part of the country, on the border with Kenya. The region encompasses the western foothills of Mount Elgon, an extinct volcano with a vast caldera that is located in Uganda and Kenya and rises to more than 4,000 meters above sea level. The dense contour lines on ...
Kidera, Uganda
This map of the Kidera region in the Kayunga District of Uganda was published by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys for the government of Uganda in 1964. It is based on aerial surveys carried out in 1959 and 1960 and on field survey data. The Victoria Nile flows northwestward from Lake Victoria into Lake Kyoga. The river then exits the lake and flows westward to Lake Albert. This map shows the point at which the river enters Lake Kyoga. Physical features depicted include woodlands and forest and swampland and papyrus ...
Bale, Uganda
This map of the area around the town of Bale, in the region of Buganda, in the district of Uganda that was then called Mengo, was published by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys for the government of Uganda in 1964. It is based on aerial surveys carried out in 1960 and on field survey data. Bale is located on the west side of the Victoria Nile River as it flows northward from Lake Victoria toward Lake Kyoga. The river is navigable at this point. The map shows the town, with ...
Masaka, Uganda
This map of Masaka District, Buganda Province in the Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was issued by the Uganda Department of Lands and Surveys in 1959. It was compiled by the department from earlier maps and from aerial photography carried out in 1950. The area depicted on the map includes the region west of Lake Victoria and north of the border with Tanganyika Territory (present-day Tanzania), including the northwestern part of Lake Victoria containing the Sese Islands (also seen as Ssese) and Kome Island. The northern edge of the map is ...
Mulabana, Uganda
This map of Mulabana, Sese County, Masaka District, Buganda Province in Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was issued in 1961 by the Uganda Lands and Surveys Department. It was compiled and drawn by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Department of Technical Cooperation in the British government based on field survey data and on aerial photography conducted by the British Royal Air Force in 1950. Mulabana is an island in the Sese Islands archipelago (also seen as Ssese) in the northwestern part of Lake Victoria, and most of the map is taken ...
Damba, Uganda
This map of Damba Island, Kyagwe County, Mengo District, Buganda Province in Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was issued in 1961 by the Uganda Lands and Surveys Department. It was compiled and drawn by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Department of Technical Cooperation in the British government, based on field survey data and on aerial photography carried out in 1955. Damba is located in the northwestern corner of Lake Victoria, south of Kampala and east of Entebbe. It is bisected by the equator, which defines the northern edge of the map ...
Street Plan of the Centre of Kampala
This map shows the center of Kampala, today the capital and largest city of Uganda, as it appeared in 1956 during the late colonial period. Depicted on the map are roads and streets; government and commercial buildings; schools; churches and mosques; the headquarters of the Uganda Society; and other buildings and sites. Kampala lies just north of Mengo, the capital of the Kingdom of Buganda in the 19th century, and it was selected by British colonial administrator Captain Frederick Lugard in 1890 as the headquarters of the Imperial British East ...
Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, East Africa
This map of Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, was issued in 1963 by the Uganda Department of Lands and Surveys, based on field survey data, aerial photography, and earlier maps. Shown are built-up areas, roads, huts and villages, railroads, airfields, telegraph lines, churches and mosques, ancient sites, and international, regional, district, and other boundaries. Symbols are used to indicate natural features and different types of terrain, including forest, thicket, bamboo, plantation, and several types of swamp. Until about 5,000 years ago, Lake Nabugabo was a part of Lake Victoria, from which ...
Maya Plisetskaya in the Role of The Great Barefoot
This photograph was taken in 1977 by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) as part of the series "Great Dancers of the Twentieth Century. Isadora Duncan−Maya Plisetskaya." That year marked the 100th anniversary of the birth of American dancer Isadora Duncan (1877−1927), in honor of which French choreographer Maurice Béjart (1927−2007) created the ballet Isadora at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow. By this time, the name and work of the “Great Barefoot,” the name given to Duncan by her contemporaries, had become almost a myth. Béjart's Isadora ...
Teacher and Student. Alexei Yermolaev and Vladimir Vasiliev
Photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) took this picture in 1971 at the Bolshoi Theater. Two legends of the world of ballet are seen in the rehearsal room: Alexei Yermolaev (1910−75), a teacher, and Vladimir Vasiliev (born 1940), a principal dancer of the Bolshoi company. A graduate of the school of dance in Leningrad, in 1926 Yermolaev became a leading dancer of the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theater (the Mariinsky Theater). He boldly challenged the supremacy of the ballerina and made men's dance more dramatic and virtuoso. He was ...
Birth of a Ballet "Béjart Style"
This photograph is from the series "The choreographer Maurice Béjart." It was taken in 1978 by Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) during the Moscow performances of Romeo and Juliet by the Brussels-based company, Ballet of the Twentieth Century. Set to music by Berlioz, the ballet was performed at the State Kremlin Palace of Congresses only twice. Ekaterina Maximova (1939−2009), a ballerina of the Bolshoi Theater, performed the role of Juliet at the invitation of choreographer Maurice Béjart (1927−2007). Romeo was danced once by Vladimir Vasiliev, a principal dancer of ...
Grigorovich Dancing
This picture, taken in 1973 by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010), shows the choreographer Yuri Grigorovich (born 1927) during a rehearsal of the ballet Legend of Love at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow. Grigorovich did not simply go through the movements; he performed them, showing the dancers their parts. Grigorovich was born in Leningrad (Saint Petersburg), graduated from the Leningrad Choreographic School, and joined the ballet company of the Kirov State Opera and Ballet Theater (now the Mariinsky Theater). He performed solo, character, and grotesque roles. He began working as ...
George Balanchine's Music
This photograph from the series "Choreographer George Balanchine" was taken in 1972 by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010). When the New York City Ballet, led by George Balanchine (1904−1983), was on a tour in Moscow, the company visited the Moscow Academic Choreography School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as the Moscow State Academy of Choreography). Mr. B, as they called Balanchine, gave an open lesson with his dancers on the stage of the school theater. Balanchine was born Georgi Balanchivadze in Saint Petersburg, son of Georgian composer Meliton ...