262 results in English
Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tartar District, Ordzhonikidze Street #26, House (Late 19th Century), Perm', Russia
This view of a wooden house at No. 26 Ordzhonikidze (formerly Monastyrskaia) Street, in the Tatar district of Perm', was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, it was the center of a large merchant community, of which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Irtysh River, Ferry Crossing at Bol'sherech'e, Russia
This photograph of the Irtysh River at Bol'sherech'e was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The Irtysh, one of Siberia's mighty rivers, is in fact a tributary of the still greater Ob' River. The Irtysh originates in the extreme northwest part of China, near the Mongolian Altai Mountains. Over its length of 4,248 kilometers, it passes through Kazakhstan and western Siberia before its confluence with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pay Off of Spec—the Good Old Times
In the American circus, the spectacle, or “spec,” developed as a procession that took place around the hippodrome track inside the big top, or circus tent, featuring as many of the performers and animals as the circus director was able to costume. Traced back to the earliest circuses in America, the spec was originally a lavish performance of literary or historical tales intended to entertain and edify the audience. The costumes created for specs were often exotic, representing cultures from all corners of the globe. The costumes also could be ...
Church of the Ascension (St. Theodosius) (1903-10), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Perm' Church of the Ascension in the name of St. Feodosii was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city's merchant community gave substantial donations for church construction. The donor for ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Products of Mexico and Central America
This black-and-white sketch map showing the products of Mexico and Central America was prepared for publication in the Bulletin of the Pan American Union. It is now preserved in the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States, successor organization to the Pan American Union. Typed or written on the map are the locations of centers of both agricultural and mineral production. The map shows mineral production located mainly in Mexico, with asphalt, coal, gold, lead, petroleum, precious stones (opals), quicksilver (mercury), and silver listed. Mexico is also shown ...
The Lincoln Bible
On March 4, 1861, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney administered the oath of office to Abraham Lincoln using a Bible provided by William Thomas Carroll, clerk of the Supreme Court, because Lincoln’s family Bible was packed with other belongings that still were en route to Washington from Springfield, Illinois. In the back of the velvet-covered Bible, along with the seal of the Supreme Court, the volume is annotated: "I, William Thos. Carroll, clerk of the said court do hereby certify that the preceding copy of the Holy Bible is ...
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Gribushin Mansion, Built around 1900, Perm', Russia
This view of the Gribushin House at No. 13 Pokrovskaia (now Lenin) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city was the center of a prosperous merchant community in which the Gribushins were ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Near East
This 1952 map by the Army Map Service of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provides a broad overview of the Near East, the geographic region traditionally thought of as encompassing the countries of southwest Asia, including Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Israel, and Jordan, and the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. In addition to political borders, the map shows lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, marshlands, cities by population, pipelines, railroads, and pumping stations. Above the key is a glossary of topographic terms with transliterations and translations into ...
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Middle East Countries: Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Saudi-Arabia
This map of the Middle East, originally published in August 1950 and revised in February 1955, was issued by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, Air Photographic and Charting Service, Military Air Transportation Service (MATS), of the United States Air Force. In addition to Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, it shows the eastern parts of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium of Sudan as well as parts of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Many borders on the map, particularly on the Arabian Peninsula, are shown as still undetermined. Territories shown ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of St. Nicholas (1705), South Facade, Detail, Nyrob, Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nyrob (northern part of Perm' Territory) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated near the Kolva River some 160 kilometers north of Solikamsk, Nyrob is first mentioned in historical sources in 1579. Because of its remote location, the settlement was chosen by Tsar Boris Godunov in 1601 as the place of exile for the boyar ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Yegoshikha Cemetery, Church of the Dormition (1905), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the entrance gate and the Church of the Dormition at the Egoshikha Cemetery in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. The first settlement was located on the small Egoshikha River, near its confluence with the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Painting 111
Manolo Millares was a self-taught artist born in 1926 in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain. Shown here is his Cuadro 111 (Painting 111), made some time after 1960, an abstract work in startlingly vivid tones of green, purple and black. Millares was influenced by Surrealism from the late 1940s and attracted to the works of Klee and Miró. In that period, he began making abstract pictograms inspired by the Guanches, the indigenous Canaries people, and the pre-Hispanic culture of the islands, and he was ...
Infertile Woman II
Mujer infecunda II (Infertile woman II) is a late work by the Canary Islands artist Antonio Padrón Rodríguez (1920−68). The works of this painter’s last years are characterized by intense use of color and abstract expressionism, although here he has also used some dark somber tones. The image presents a fertility ritual, perhaps being performed by a woman seeking to become pregnant. She is a metaphor for the earth and the struggle to wrest growth from the islands, with their periods of drought. It is an image of ...
The Green Lightning
El rayo verde (The green lightning) is a late work by the Canary Islands artist Antonio Padrón Rodríguez (1920−68). He was born and lived most of his life in Gáldar, Gran Canaria, and many of his works reflect a strong sense of Canary location, customs, and people. He is linked to the Luján Pérez school, named for religious sculptor José Luján Pérez (1756−1815), who inspired a tradition of artists working in various media and focused on local culture, identity, and the position of Canary people in the world ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume I, Number 1, January 1934
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
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The Most Truthful Method of Distinguishing the Ibadites from the Kharijites and The Gift from Heaven on the Judgment of Shedding Blood
Sālim ibn Ḥammūd ibn Shāmis al-Siyābī (1908−93) was an Omani scholar, poet, historian, and judge. He was born in Ghāla, in the state of Bawshār in eastern Oman. A self-taught scholar, al-Siyābī memorized the Qur’an at age seven and went on to study Arabic language classics, including Ibn Malik’s Alfiyah, a 1,000-line poem about Arabic grammar rules. Al-Siyābī was also a prolific writer, and was the author of as many as 84 works, according to Sultān ibn Mubārak al-Shaybānī, who categorized al-Siyābī’s body of work ...
Interposition Resolution by the Florida Legislature in Response to Brown v. Board of Education, 1957, with Handwritten Note by Florida Governor LeRoy Collins
In 1957, the Florida State Legislature passed a resolution in opposition to the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, the Topeka, Kansas, case that ended legal segregation in public education. Racial segregation was originally found to be constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in the landmark Plessy v. Ferguson case in 1896. The decision laid the foundation for what became known as Jim Crow laws by declaring segregation legal if the facilities were “separate but equal.” The Brown decision removed that foundation, and many ...
Florida's Canal Main Street
Interest in constructing a water route across the Florida peninsula goes back to the colonial rule of the Spanish and the British and continued when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. The earliest American surveys for a possible canal in Florida were undertaken in the wake of excitement surrounding the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the first significant work on a cross-Florida canal as part of New Deal public works programs in Florida. After much debate, construction on route ...
Killing Time
Highways to the southern states of the United States opened up during the second decade of the 20th century, allowing men and women from around the country to see the unique sites of Florida's interior, away from the cities on the east and west coasts. After the completion of the highway from Montreal to Miami in 1915, the number of automobile tourists increased dramatically. The original “tin can tourists” of the 1920s pioneered camper travel, and the practice became ever more popular after World War II, as young families ...
Wakulla Springs Glass-Bottom Boat Tour Chant by Luke Smith
The sound recording presented here features a chant recited by Luke Smith at the 1981 Florida Folk Festival in White Springs, Florida. Smith, a longtime guide on the Wakulla River, sings about the underwater environment and summons fish to the boat. His chant is reminiscent of African-American spirituals and field hollers common throughout the Deep South of the United States. Alligators, snakes, rare birds, and native exoticism are part of Florida’s tourism industry. Narrated boat tours at sites such as Wakulla Springs State Park, located at the spring south ...
Waters of Destiny
The systematic drainage of the Florida Everglades began in earnest in 1905. Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, then Florida’s governor, committed significant state funds and solicited federal assistance in order to reclaim from underutilization the vast swamplands south of Lake Okeechobee. The ultimate goal of the Everglades reclamation was to access rich “muck” soil, covered in many areas by a thin layer of freshwater. Muck soil consisted of thousands of years of organic material accumulated on top of limestone bedrock. The muck made for ready and productive topsoil, but was quickly ...
Whip Cracking Demonstration—L.K. Edwards, Junior
Fredric Remington introduced Americans to the “Florida Cracker” cowboy in the August 1895 issue of Harper’s Magazine. Remington sketched and wrote about the fiercely independent breed of Florida cattlemen, who herded cattle and battled rustlers along the frontier. For Remington and many of his contemporaries, the Florida they knew resembled a frontier as much as any region of the United States in the late 19th century. The term “cracker” derives from the sound created by the popping of a bull whip. Florida crackers carried whips and used them, along ...
Map of India in the Age of the Mahabharata
This undated 20th-century map, published in Pune (formerly Poona), India, shows place names in India associated with the Mahābhārāta, one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India (the other being the Ramayana). The title of the map is in Marathi; the place names are in Sanskrit. Mahābhārata can be translated as "the great tale of the Bharata Dynasty.” Most likely composed between 200 B.C. and 200 A.D., this enormously long epic recounts the story of the dynastic struggle and civil war between the Pandavas and the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Nativity-St. Ferapont Monastery, Southwest View, Ferapontovo, Russia
This photograph of the main ensemble at the Ferapontov-Nativity of the Virgin Monastery was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the “Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located near the Sheksna River in the central part of Vologda Province, the Ferapontov-Nativity Monastery was founded in 1398 on the shores of Lake Borodava by Ferapont, a monk of noble birth from Moscow. The center of the monastery is the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin, built ...
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NZD185: Romance and Love-Related Ceremonies
The Naxi language spoken by the Naxi people of Yunnan Province, China is the only pictographic writing system in the world still in use. A member of the Tibetan-Burman language family, Naxi has many of the tonal and symbolic aspects of Chinese. The Naxi language has four tones; each sound complex has many different meanings based on its tone. The Naxi Dongba script is used exclusively by the dongba (shamans/priests) as an aid to the recitation of ritual texts during religious ceremonies and shamanistic rituals. Many of the individual ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
NZD186: Romance and Love-Related Ceremonies
The Naxi language spoken by the Naxi people of Yunnan Province, China, is the only pictographic writing system in the world still in use. A member of the Tibetan-Burman language family, Naxi has many of the tonal and symbolic aspects of Chinese. The Naxi language has four tones; each sound complex has many different meanings based on its tone. The Naxi Dongba script is used exclusively by the dongba (shamans/priests) as an aid to the recitation of ritual texts during religious ceremonies and shamanistic rituals. Many of the individual ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
NZD187: Romance and Love-Related Ceremonies
The Naxi language spoken by the Naxi people of Yunnan Province, China, is the only pictographic writing system in the world still in use. A member of the Tibetan-Burman language family, Naxi has many of the tonal and symbolic aspects of Chinese. The Naxi language has four tones; each sound complex has many different meanings based on its tone. The Naxi Dongba script is used exclusively by the dongba (shamans/priests) as an aid to the recitation of ritual texts during religious ceremonies and shamanistic rituals. Many of the individual ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
NZD188: Romance and Love-Related Ceremonies
The Naxi language spoken by the Naxi people of Yunnan Province, China, is the only pictographic writing system in the world still in use. A member of the Tibetan-Burman language family, Naxi has many of the tonal and symbolic aspects of Chinese. The Naxi language has four tones; each sound complex has many different meanings based on its tone. The Naxi Dongba script is used exclusively by the dongba (shamans/priests) as an aid to the recitation of ritual texts during religious ceremonies and shamanistic rituals. Many of the individual ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
NZD189: Romance and Love-Related Ceremonies
The Naxi language spoken by the Naxi people of Yunnan Province, China, is the only pictographic writing system in the world still in use. A member of the Tibetan-Burman language family, Naxi has many of the tonal and symbolic aspects of Chinese. The Naxi language has four tones; each sound complex has many different meanings based on its tone. The Naxi Dongba script is used exclusively by the dongba (shamans/priests) as an aid to the recitation of ritual texts during religious ceremonies and shamanistic rituals. Many of the individual ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
NZD190: Romance and Love-Related Ceremonies
The Naxi language spoken by the Naxi people of Yunnan Province, China, is the only pictographic writing system in the world still in use. A member of the Tibetan-Burman language family, Naxi has many of the tonal and symbolic aspects of Chinese. The Naxi language has four tones; each sound complex has many different meanings based on its tone. The Naxi Dongba script is used exclusively by the dongba (shamans/priests) as an aid to the recitation of ritual texts during religious ceremonies and shamanistic rituals. Many of the individual ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
We Live and Work According to Lenin: Atlas of the Novosibirsk Region
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union drew its legitimacy from the life and work of Vladimir I. Lenin, the leading figure of the Russian Revolution and the founder of the Soviet state. This late Soviet-era atlas of the Siberian region of Novosibirsk contains, in addition to its 32 maps, sections on V. I. Lenin and Siberia, the establishment of Soviet power in Novosibirsk, and the participation of the region in the Great Patriotic War (World War II), as well as descriptions of the industrial, agricultural, educational, and cultural achievements ...
Contributed by Russian State Library
Pow-Wow Princess Song
This song in the Omaha language was performed at the 1983 Omaha Tribal Pow-Wow in Macy, Nebraska, and was recorded by Carl Fleischhauer, an American folklife specialist at the Library of Congress. It was sung in honor of the 1983 Omaha Pow-Wow Princess, Melanie Parker. The song can be translated as, "I'm coming, I'm coming to you. Stand up when you see me coming, bringing something good to you." Each year a young woman is chosen as princess to serve the powwow committee and the Omaha community as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Competition Drawing
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, originally designed as a student project by Maya Lin for her degree at Yale University Architectural School, has become a profound national symbol and a seminal piece of American monumental architecture. Undertaken to heal a nation torn apart by the controversial war, the competition attracted proposals from thousands of veterans and architects. Lin envisioned a black granite wall, in the shape of a V, on which the names of the American military dead and missing would be inscribed. The architect hoped that "these names, seemingly infinite ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zhu Category D: Romance and Love-Related Ceremonies - Ji Feng
The Naxi language spoken by the Naxi people of Yunnan Province, China, is the only pictographic writing system in the world still in use. A member of the Tibetan-Burman language family, Naxi has many of the tonal and symbolic aspects of Chinese. The Naxi language has four tones; each sound complex has many different meanings based on its tone. The Naxi Dongba script is used exclusively by the dongba (shamans/priests) as an aid to the recitation of ritual texts during religious ceremonies and shamanistic rituals. Many of the individual ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Noblemen's Assembly (1830), West Facade, Perm', Russia
This photograph of the former Noblemen's Assembly (Dvor'ianskoe sobranie) at No. 20 Sibirskaia (now Karl Marx) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is the largest metropolis on the European side of the Urals. Before the 1917 revolution, it had a significant concentration ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Log Church of the Epiphany (also known as Nativity of the Virgin), (1617), Northwest View, with Kama River in Background, Pianteg, Russia
This photograph of the southeast view of the log Church of the Epiphany (also known as the Church of the Nativity of the Mother of God) in the village of Pianteg (Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the steep left bank of the Kama River some 40 kilometers southwest of Cherdyn', the Pianteg church is the oldest surviving log structure in the western Urals ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Independence of the Republic of Congo: Texts of the Speeches Given at the Official Session of the National Assembly and During the Public Proclamation of Independence
This booklet, issued by the Ministry of Information of the Republic of the Congo, is a collection of speeches given by high-ranking Congolese and French politicians at a special session of the Congolese National Assembly on August 14-15, 1960, convened to mark the country’s independence from France, which took effect on August 15, 1960. Included are speeches by the first president of the Republic of the Congo, Fulbert Youlou (1917-72), a speech by André Malraux, and a message from French President Charles de Gaulle read by Malraux. Youlou was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Respect for Human Dignity: an Inaugural Address
This pamphlet contains the text of the speech given by Nigerian independence leader Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-96) on the day he became the first indigenous governor-general of Nigeria and the first Nigerian to be named to the Privy Council of Queen Elizabeth II. Nigeria became an independent state within the British Commonwealth on October 1, 1960. In the speech, Azikiwe discusses the changed role of the governor-general as a result of independence and, as in many of his speeches and writings from the period, the importance of the rule of law ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Message from Mister Leopold Sedar Senghor, President of the Republic, to the Senegalese People
This speech to the people of Senegal by Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001) was delivered the day after his election as the first president of the newly independent republic. Senghor was born in what was then French West Africa. He was sent at a young age to a Catholic mission school, where he embraced French and European culture, but also felt the loss of his mother tongue and the pain of being torn from his African roots. He won a scholarship to pursue literary studies in France, beginning in 1928. In ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Constitution of the Republic of Togo, May 5, 1963
Togo (officially known as the Togolese Republic) became a German protectorate in 1884 and a German colony in 1905. After World War I, it was made a French protectorate under a League of Nations mandate. The country gained its independence from France in 1960 under the leadership of Sylvanus Olympio (1902-63), a business leader who had studied at the London School of Economics and was employed by the United Africa Company. Olympio was assassinated on January 13, 1963, in what is considered the first coup d’état of the post-colonial ...
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Speech Delivered by Mister Houphouet-Boigny, Minister of State at the Geo-Andre Stadium in Abidjan on September 7, 1958
Félix Houphouët-Boigny (1905-93) was the first president of Côte d’Ivoire. He gave this speech shortly before a September 1958 referendum on the future of French West Africa. Houphouët-Boigny outlined the country's path to independence, but also called for the preservation of strong ties with France, within a new French Community. Côte d’Ivoire became a de facto French protectorate under a series of treaties concluded in 1843-44, and a French colony in 1893. From 1904 to 1958, Côte d’Ivoire was part of the federation of French West ...
Contributed by Library of Congress