39 results in English
Pay Off of Spec—the Good Old Times
In the American circus, the spectacle, or “spec,” developed as a procession that took place around the hippodrome track inside the big top, or circus tent, featuring as many of the performers and animals as the circus director was able to costume. Traced back to the earliest circuses in America, the spec was originally a lavish performance of literary or historical tales intended to entertain and edify the audience. The costumes created for specs were often exotic, representing cultures from all corners of the globe. The costumes also could be ...
Ivolginsk Buddhist Datsan, Main Temple, Interior, Ivolga, Russia
This photograph of the interior of the main temple at the Ivolginsk Buddhist datsan (monastery) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. This primary Buddhist center in the Republic of Buriatiia (Russian Federation) is situated 25 kilometers to the southwest of Ulan-Ude near the Ivolga River. It was founded in 1946 after the destruction or closure of previous Buddhist monastic communities in what appears to have been a cultural ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Transfer of the League of Nations to the United Nations, Ceremony with Sean Lester and Wlodzimierz Moderow
By the end of World War II, 43 countries technically were still members of the League of Nations, but the organization, which had been established after World War I to prevent another great war but had failed in this mission, for all practical purposes had ceased to exist. A new international organization, the United Nations, came into being with the signature, in San Francisco on June 26, 1945, of the Charter of the United Nations. At the initiative of the British Foreign Office, the League held a final Assembly (the ...
The Near East
This 1952 map by the Army Map Service of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provides a broad overview of the Near East, the geographic region traditionally thought of as encompassing the countries of southwest Asia, including Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Israel, and Jordan, and the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. In addition to political borders, the map shows lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, marshlands, cities by population, pipelines, railroads, and pumping stations. Above the key is a glossary of topographic terms with transliterations and translations into ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Middle East Countries: Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Saudi-Arabia
This map of the Middle East, originally published in August 1950 and revised in February 1955, was issued by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, Air Photographic and Charting Service, Military Air Transportation Service (MATS), of the United States Air Force. In addition to Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, it shows the eastern parts of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium of Sudan as well as parts of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Many borders on the map, particularly on the Arabian Peninsula, are shown as still undetermined. Territories shown ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recommended Facilities for Search and Rescue, Middle East Region
This map was prepared for the Middle East Region Air Navigation Meeting of the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO), which took place in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1946. It shows political borders and recommended facilities for search and rescue, including rescue-coordinating and rescue-alerting centers, bases for different types of search-and-rescue aircraft, and facilities for surface vessels. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was established under a convention signed by 52 countries at the November 1944 International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago. From August 1945 to August 1947, as the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Airlines of the Eastern Mediterranean and Adjacent Areas: As of October, 1947
This map of airline routes in the Eastern Mediterranean and adjacent areas was compiled and drawn by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency for the Department of State, based on information supplied by the Foreign Air Transport Division of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board. It presumably was for use by diplomats at the newly established International Civil Aviation Organization. Some of the airlines whose routes are shown exist to the present day; others have merged, gone bankrupt, or changed their names. Athens, Cairo, Lydda (Lod in present-day Israel; until ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Middle East Air Traffic Control Scheme
This map, produced in 1946 by the Survey of Egypt, shows a scheme for air traffic control in the Middle East. The International Convention on Civil Aviation, adopted by 52 countries in 1944, provided for the establishment of an international air-traffic control system aimed at preventing aircraft collisions. The world’s airspace was to be divided into contiguous regions, within each of which all traffic would be controlled by a designated air-traffic control authority. On longer flights, aircraft are passed by radio from the control of one region to another ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Uganda Journal, Volume I, Number 1, January 1934
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
View 19 more issues
The Holy Qur'an
This distinctive Qur’an comprises the first six surahs (chapters) of the Muslim Holy Book, starting with al-Fātiḥah (The opening) and ending with al-Anʻām (The cattle). The two beginning pages containing al-Fātiḥah are elaborately decorated, as is usually the case with this surah, first with an outermost frame of numerous, small, olive-green niches, but also with a series of other linear frames in red, white, black, green, and gold. Motifs include twisted metal bars and vines with top and bottom transom-like cartouches, suggesting a door shape, and possibly alluding ...
Seminoles with Irons During Round-up and Branding at the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation
The cattle industry in Florida began soon after the nation’s oldest city, Saint Augustine, was established in 1565. Spaniards imported livestock to meet the needs of the small but critical colony. By the dawn of the 18th century, Spanish, African, and Native American cattlemen worked cows on the vast wet prairies and scrublands found throughout northern and central Florida. La Chula, the largest ranch in Spanish Florida, boasted thousands of head of cattle in the late 1600s. Seminole migrants took up cattle herding in northern Florida following the destruction ...
Portrait of Seminole Indian Cowboy Charlie Micco at the Brighton Indian Reservation
Seminole Indians dominated Florida’s cattle industry during the early 19th century. The Seminoles themselves, not originally cattle people, inherited abandoned Spanish livestock in the 18th century and adopted herding into their own culture. Seminole cattle all but vanished as a result of fighting during the Seminole Wars (1817−18, 1835−42, and 1855−58). Following the removal of the vast majority of the Seminoles and the seizure of their cattle, the remaining Florida Indians adapted their herding culture to the abundant supply of wild hogs found in central and ...
Ringling Circus Clown Emmett Kelly in Sarasota, Florida
Emmett Kelly (1898−1979), pictured here, portrayed the melancholy hobo-clown Weary Willie for the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus for more than a decade. His act differed from that of the typical jovial clown and made Weary Willie one of the most memorable components of the Ringling Brothers show. The Ringling Brothers built the show from humble beginnings in Baraboo, Wisconsin, into the largest and best-known American circus. They began their ascent in show business in 1884 when they combined with the Yankee Robinson circus. The following year the Ringlings bought out Yankee Robinson and became sole proprietors of the traveling show. The Ringling Brothers quickly acquired smaller circus shows and sought out the top performers from around the world. In 1919, the Ringlings merged their two largest ventures—Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey—into a single, combined circus, the “Greatest Show on Earth.” In 1927, the circus moved its winter quarters from Bridgeport, Connecticut, to Sarasota, Florida. Members of the Ringling family had wintered in Sarasota since 1911. This photograph, taken in 1947, is by Joseph Janney Steinmetz, a world-renowned commercial photographer whose images appeared in such publications as the Saturday Evening Post, Life, Look, Time, Holiday, Collier's, and Town & Country. His work has been referred to as "an American social history," which documented diverse scenes of American life. Steinmetz moved from Philadelphia to Sarasota in 1941.
Killing Time
Highways to the southern states of the United States opened up during the second decade of the 20th century, allowing men and women from around the country to see the unique sites of Florida's interior, away from the cities on the east and west coasts. After the completion of the highway from Montreal to Miami in 1915, the number of automobile tourists increased dramatically. The original “tin can tourists” of the 1920s pioneered camper travel, and the practice became ever more popular after World War II, as young families ...
7th War Loan. Now--All Together
C.C. Beall (1892-1967) was a commercial illustrator who drew comics and book covers. He based the image on this World War II war loan poster on the famous Joe Rosenthal photograph of the second American flag to be raised on Iwo Jima. The photo made a huge impact after being published as part of news reports on the battle. This poster was part of the campaign for a 7th War Loan subscription, which took place in May 1945, just days after victory in Europe. Officials were concerned that the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Constitution of India
This book is one of 1,000 photolithographic reproductions of the Constitution of the Republic of India, which came into effect on January 26, 1950, after being approved by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. The original of this elaborate edition took nearly five years to produce. It is signed by the framers of the constitution, most of whom are regarded as the founders of the Republic of India. The original of the book is kept in a special helium-filled case in the Library of the Parliament of India ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gaucho Drinking “Mate”
This photograph shows a gaucho in traditional dress pouring hot water from a kettle to make maté, a traditional drink common to Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay that is made from the yerba maté plant native to subtropical South America. In the background is a tepee-like structure. Gaucho is a term used to denote descendants of the early Spanish colonizers who traditionally led a semi-nomadic life on the South American pampas. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which ...
George Bush, Captain of the Yale Baseball Team, Receives Babe Ruth's Manuscript of His Autobiography Which He Was Donating to Yale
George Herman (“Babe”) Ruth was the most celebrated American athlete of the 1920s, a period that has been called the Golden Age of Sports for its extraordinary hero-athletes in baseball, football, golf, boxing, horse-racing, and other sports. Ruth was born to German-American parents in Baltimore in 1895. He began his major-league career in 1914 as a pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, winning 89 games in six years. In 1920 he was sold to the New York Yankees and converted to being an outfielder, where he made his mark as ...
Procession in Otovalo, Walking to the Mass
This photograph from Otavalo, Ecuador, shows a procession of residents on their way to mass, all of them wearing hats and ponchos with distinctive stripes, and carrying lit torches on long poles. Otavalo has a population that is largely indigenous, and is famous for its textiles and other handicrafts. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on ...
Get Out! The Indies Must be Liberated
This 1945 recruiting poster by the Dutch artist Nico Broekman shows a Japanese soldier being booted from the island of Bali, and the caption, “Get Out! The Indies Must Be Liberated.” During World War II, Japan occupied the Dutch East Indies in early 1942. After the surrender, a large number of Dutch submarines and some aircraft escaped to Australia and continued to fight as part of Australian units. In the course of the war, Indonesian nationalists supported by the Japanese took over parts of the country. Allied troops invaded Borneo ...
Bathing Room in the Women's Quarter of the Makassarese Village Near Master Cornelis in Batavia
This 1945 photograph shows women and children bathing at the Kampong Makassar internment camp near Batavia (present-day Jakarta) during World War II. After the Dutch East Indies fell to Japanese forces in 1942, many Dutch residents were forced into internment camps, where they stayed until the end of the war. At Kampong Makassar, which operated from January to August 1945, more than 3,600 women and children were held in a space measuring less than one square kilometer. The photograph is from the collections of the KITLV/Royal Netherlands Institute ...
Military Transport Boats at Iwo Jima
This impressionistic painting of military transport boats approaching Iwo Jima is the work of Harry Reeks (1921-82), an official Marine Corps combat artist who sketched battles in the Pacific during World War II. He arrived at Iwo Jima with the invasion force and spent 30 days there drawing the campaign. The battle for Iwo Jima, from February 19, 1945, to March 26, 1945, was one of the fiercest in the Pacific campaign of the war, and is best remembered for the iconic photograph of Marines raising the flag on the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Sketch of the DNA Double Helix by Francis Crick
The iconic image of the double helix--the twisted ladder that carries the codes for earth's huge variety of life forms–goes back to 1953 and the homemade metal model created by the British scientist Francis Crick and his American collaborator, James Watson. Determined to solve the puzzle posed by the research evidence at the time, they obtained new insights by visualizing the structure of the complex molecule through a physical model. This pencil sketch of DNA was made by Crick and forms part of the extensive Crick Archive at ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
Thousands of Live Alligators on Free Exhibition
This broadside, dating from about 1950, is an advertisement for Osky’s, also known as Osky’s Curio Shop or Osky’s Alligator Store, a Jacksonville mercantile store that sold gift items, rare or bizarre decorative items, and goods made out of alligator skin, including lamps, purses, and wallets. The shop also exhibited live alligators and other reptiles. Jacksonville was home to many of Florida’s earliest tourist attractions, including the Florida Alligator Farm. Operating for several decades on Jacksonville’s historic Bay Street, Osky’s promoted itself through postcards ...
All-American Girls Professional Baseball League Player Marg Callaghan Sliding into Home Plate as Umpire Norris Ward Watches
Many minor baseball league teams had disbanded by late 1942, because of young men of military age being drafted to serve in World War II. The All-American Girls Baseball League was founded as a nonprofit association in 1943 by a group of powerful financial figures in professional baseball, concerned that baseball parks across the United States might collapse. They included the owner of Wrigley Field in Chicago, businessman Phillip K. Wrigley; Brooklyn Dodgers president and general manager Branch Rickey; and Paul V. Harper, a Chicago attorney who was a trustee ...
Midwinter Crowd at Miami Beach
Winter tourism became a major factor in the development of Miami and south Florida from the 1920s onward. Development, particularly of hotels, grew apace, with the increasing popularity of this tourism and retirement haven, and much helped by the spread of commercial aviation. By 1940 Miami had about two million vacationers a year. President Harry S Truman was there for the dedication of the Everglades National Park in 1947. Some of the new hotels, such as the 1948 Sherry Frontenac, had fine Art Deco details. This photograph, taken on December ...
The Bunyoro Agreement 1955
This document, from the National Archives of Uganda, is the original of the Bunyoro Agreement of 1955 between Great Britain and the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, one of the traditional kingdoms of Uganda. The agreement, in both English and Lunyoro, was signed on September 3 by Sir Andrew Cohen (1909–68), governor of the Uganda Protectorate, on behalf of the British government in London and the government of the protectorate, and the Omukama (king), Sir Tito Gafabusa Winyi IV (1883–1971), on behalf of himself and his successors, the Rukurato (the ...
African American Man Wrestling an Alligator at the St. Augustine Alligator Farm
One of the symbols of the state of Florida in the popular imagination is the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). From the earliest European explorers to the present day, visitors have been fascinated by this cold-blooded freshwater reptile. With a name derived from the Spanish word lagarto (the lizard), alligators can grow to an average of 13–15 feet (4–4.6 meters) and weigh 500–1,000 pounds (227–453 kilograms). The alligator used to be prized for its meat and skin, was once hunted and harvested to near extinction ...
Americana Hotel
Designed by Russian immigrant architect Morris Lapidus (1902–2001) and completed in 1956, the Americana Hotel is a dynamic example of the Miami Modern architecture style, or “MIMO,” which rose to prominence in southeast Florida in the 1950s and 1960s. Miami Modern was the local variant of the midcentury modernism, or the international style, which incorporated prefabricated materials, such as cast concrete, to produce explorative designs and project a strong sense of modern technology and innovation. Space-age forms incorporating such elements as parabolic curves were combined with the new possibilities ...
Portrait of Sponge Diver John M. Gonatos
The Florida sponge diving industry developed in the area of Tarpon Springs beginning in the late 19th century. In 1891, the entrepreneur John King Cheyney founded the Anclote and Rock Island Sponge Company. Cheyney initially harvested sponges from the floor of the Gulf of Mexico by hooking the sponges from boats. In 1897, Cheyney employed a young Greek sponge buyer and technical expert, John Cocoris, who explained how sponge divers in Greece, using rubberized wet suits, could harvest four times as much sponge as people working from boats. Cheyney placed ...
A Mill Worker Watches Over the Loading of Powder Fine Phosphate
Major phosphate deposits were first discovered in Florida in Alachua County in the early 1880s. By the turn of the century, phosphate mining was a major industry as phosphate seams were identified in central and southwestern Florida, and mining became an essential economic engine for cities such as Dunnellon, Newberry, and Mulberry. From hand mining with wheelbarrows and picks, to large-scale mechanized mining employing hydraulic pumps and draglines, the industry changed dramatically in the course of the 20th century. Phosphate rock must be separated from the mud and other materials ...
Thatched Roof Building in Palm Grove with People Gathered Around Trees and Building
Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands was the scene of the first post-World War II atomic tests, carried out by the United States to determine the effects of nuclear weapons on naval ships. This photograph, part of the record of the operation made by the U.S. Army Air Forces, shows inhabitants of the island gathered around a thatched-roof building in a palm grove. Before the tests, all 167 residents of Bikini were evacuated from their home island. Because of the high levels of radiation caused by the explosions over ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Thatched Roof Building Shaded by Palm Trees with People Standing at Entrance
Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands was the scene of the first post-World War II atomic tests, carried out by the United States to determine the effects of nuclear weapons on naval ships. This photograph, part of the record of the operation made by the U.S. Army Air Forces, shows people looking out from a typical thatched-roof building on Bikini. Before the tests, all 167 residents of Bikini were evacuated from their home island. Because of the high levels of radiation caused by the explosions over Bikini, neither they ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Long a Pacific Mystery, the Secret Naval Base at Truk is Hit by Avengers, February 1944
This illustration shows U.S. Navy planes flying over the island of Truk in the Federated States of Micronesia during World War II. The destruction of the Japanese naval base at Truk was an important element of American strategy in the Pacific theater. It also had a profound effect on the indigenous inhabitants, who were caught up in fighting that lasted from February 1944 to the end of the war. The planes shown are the Avenger torpedo bombers that first saw action in the Battle of Midway in 1942. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Poster from the First Postwar General Election
The first general election in Japan after World War II was held on April 10, 1946, in Showa 21 (Showa years number the regnal years of Emperor Hirohito, starting in 1926). This was also the first election to be carried out after the electoral law reforms of December 17, 1945 (Showa 20), which granted all men and women aged 20 years and above the right to vote. This election poster includes text by the female author Ikuta Hanayo (1888–1970) and calls upon women to cast their votes. The voters ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
New Constitution–Bright Life
This book was published in 1947 to popularize the new Japanese constitution. Entitled Atarashii Kenpō Akarui Seikatsu (New constitution–bright life), it was distributed to every household in the country. Among the aims of the Allied occupation of Japan that followed World War II was the establishment of a democratic government, based on a new liberal constitution and the expressed will of the Japanese people. The Kenpō Fukyū Kai (Constitution Popularization Society) was founded on December 1, 1946, as a result of pressure from occupation officials to “thoroughly popularize the ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
The Story of the New Constitution for Boys and Girls
This 1949 children’s book was written by Kanamori Tokujiro, deputy chairman of the Kenpō Fukyū Kai (Constitution Popularization Society), with illustrations by Yoshizawa Renzaburo and Miwa Takashi. As the new constitution was introduced, many books were published with simple text and pictures aimed at explaining the principles of the constitution to children and young people. They were a part of educational outreach efforts explicitly required in the Fundamental Law on Education enacted in March 1947. Kanamori became a member of the House of Peers in February 1946, and was ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
10 Explanatory Illustrations of the Constitution of Japan
These colored illustrations were produced by Nihon University in 1947 to provide a straightforward explanation of the fundamental principles of the new Japanese constitution. They convey such themes as "the rights and duties of the people," "the rights of the individual," and "equality of the people," using beautiful colors and humorous illustrations. These illustrations, together with books and documents, were commissioned by the Kenpō Fukyū Kai (Constitution Popularization Society), which was founded on December 1, 1946 to popularize the spirit of the new constitution and raise awareness of it in ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
The Buganda Agreement, 1955
By the late 19th century, Buganda was a powerful East African kingdom, running along the northwest shore of Lake Victoria, in present-day south-central Uganda.  The Buganda Agreement of 1900, which gave Buganda a large degree of internal autonomy within the British-ruled Uganda Protectorate, was modified by this 1955 treaty. The Buganda Agreement, 1955 was made on October 18 of that year, between Sir Andrew Cohen, Governor and Commander in Chief of the Uganda Protectorate, on behalf of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and ...