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Southeast Europe and the Mediterranean Sea
This map of southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean was made early in World War II by Fremde Heere Ost (Foreign Armies East), a unit of the German army general staff responsible for intelligence about the armies of the Soviet Union, Scandinavia, certain Balkan countries, Africa, and the Far East. The map shows country boundaries in bold, dark purple. Also shown are oil pipelines, wells and other sources of water, and important roads, railroads, and canals. Many of the countries of this region were involved in the war. Italian and ...
The Near and Middle East: Balkan Peninsula
This map of the Near and Middle East was compiled in 1940 by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the British Army and published by the War Office of the British government in 1941. The map shows topographic relief by gradient tints and indicates railroads, principal roads, secondary roads, caravan routes and tracks, the names and boundaries of provinces and districts, and deserts, rivers, swamps, and other topographic features. Towns and cities are classified and shown by categories, from first (capitals) to fifth in importance. Also shown are ...
Iran and Afghanistan
Published in 1941 during the early part of World War II, this Japanese map of Iran and Afghanistan is based on a map issued the previous year by the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography of the Soviet Union. Unlike the British and the Russians, the Japanese did not have extensive knowledge of, or experience in, this part of Asia, which nonetheless became an important strategic interest for them during the war. The Axis powers—Germany, Japan, and Italy—believed that ultimate victory would require that they gain control of ...
Maps of the Middle East and the Near East
Shown here is a large folding map produced by the General Staff of the German Army during World War II. Notes on the map indicate that it was solely for use within the army and that reproduction was prohibited. One side is a large map of the region stretching from the Balkan Peninsula to the eastern part of Iran. Shown are towns and cities by population size, international borders, the borders of republics and provinces within the Soviet Union, major and secondary roads, roads under construction, oil pipelines, mountain passes ...
Ethnic and Language Map of the Near East
This map, produced in 1943 by the Geographic Service of the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office) of Germany, shows the ethnic, linguistic, and religious makeup of the Middle East. Included are the Caucasus and other parts of the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, and parts of present-day Pakistan and India. The map and the explanatory text reflect the Nazi-era obsession with race and ethnicity. The long note at the top of the key states that the map "endeavors to show the Lebensraum [living space] of those oriental peoples located in Europe’s area ...
Map of the Middle East
This map of the Middle East was made by the Führungsstab der Luftwaffe (the operations staff of the German air force) in 1943. The map is labeled “Secret.” Covering the region from the eastern Mediterranean to the border of Afghanistan with British India (present-day Pakistan), it shows the locations of first- and second-class air bases, operational bases, landing strips, and airfields under construction, as of March 15, 1943. Six inset maps—of Aden, Mosul, Cyprus, Baghdad, Gaza-Haifa, and Damascus-Aleppo—provide additional detail about locations with more well-developed aviation infrastructure. Railroad ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume I, Number 1, January 1934
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
The Holy Qur'an
This distinctive Qur’an comprises the first six surahs (chapters) of the Muslim Holy Book, starting with al-Fātiḥah (The opening) and ending with al-Anʻām (The cattle). The two beginning pages containing al-Fātiḥah are elaborately decorated, as is usually the case with this surah, first with an outermost frame of numerous, small, olive-green niches, but also with a series of other linear frames in red, white, black, green, and gold. Motifs include twisted metal bars and vines with top and bottom transom-like cartouches, suggesting a door shape, and possibly alluding ...
7th War Loan. Now--All Together
C.C. Beall (1892-1967) was a commercial illustrator who drew comics and book covers. He based the image on this World War II war loan poster on the famous Joe Rosenthal photograph of the second American flag to be raised on Iwo Jima. The photo made a huge impact after being published as part of news reports on the battle. This poster was part of the campaign for a 7th War Loan subscription, which took place in May 1945, just days after victory in Europe. Officials were concerned that the ...
Into the Jaws of Death: United States Troops Wading Through Water and Nazi Gunfire
This photograph from the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park, New York, shows American soldiers landing in Normandy, France, on the morning of June 6, 1944, the beginning of the long-awaited invasion to liberate continental Europe from the grip of Nazi Germany. Most of the troops that came ashore were from the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, with smaller contingents from France, Poland, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, and the Netherlands. The invading forces confronted formidable obstacles. German defenses included thousands of soldiers dug into bunkers, artillery, mines, barbed wire ...
Between Weedpatch and Lamont, Kern County, California. Children Living in Camp... Rent $2.75 Plus Electricity
"Between Weedpatch and Lamont, Kern County, California. Children living in camp." This photograph and the accompanying description are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early 1930s, she worked as a portrait photographer. In 1932, wanting to see a world different from the society families she had been photographing, she began shooting San Francisco's labor unrest and urban unemployed ...
Edison, Kern County, California, Young Migratory Mother, Originally from Texas
"Young migratory mother, originally from Texas. On the day before the photograph was made she and her husband traveled 35 miles each way to pick peas. They worked 5 hours each and together earned $2.25. They have two young children... Live in auto camp." This photograph and the accompanying description are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early ...
This photograph and the accompanying caption are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early 1930s, she worked as a portrait photographer. In 1932, wanting to see a world different from the society families she had been photographing, she began shooting San Francisco's labor unrest and urban unemployed. In 1935, she accepted a position as a staff photographer with ...
Near Buckeye, Maricopa County, Arizona, Migrant African-American Cotton Picker and Her Baby
This photograph, taken by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965) in late 1940, depicts a migrant from the South and her baby on an Arizona cotton farm. Lange was one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, she moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early 1930s, she worked as a portrait photographer. In 1932, wanting to see a world different from the society families she had been photographing, she began shooting San Francisco's labor ...
We Can Do It! Rosie the Riveter
This poster, produced by Westinghouse during World War II for the War Production Co-Ordinating Committee, was part of the national campaign in the United States to enlist women in the workforce. In the face of acute wartime labor shortages, women were needed in the defense industries, the civilian service, and even the armed forces. Publicity campaigns were aimed at encouraging those women who had never before held jobs to join the workforce. Poster and film images glorified and glamorized the roles of working women and suggested that a woman’s ...
Youngster, Clutching His Soldier Father, Gazes Upward While the Latter Lifts His Wife from the Ground to Wish Her a "Merry Christmas": The serviceman is one of those fortunate enough to be able to get home for the holidays
This photograph, from Christmas 1944, was produced by the Office of War Information, a wartime U.S. government agency established in June 1942 to coordinate the release of domestic and international news, with the aims of bolstering morale at home and undermining that of the enemy abroad. Images and captions such as these were intended to convey a positive, uplifting message in a time of war. Many well-known writers and photographers worked for the Office of War Information, including poet and former Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish, the photographer Gordon ...
Basic and Advanced Flying School for Negro Air Corps Cadets, Tuskegee, Alabama: In the center is Captain Roy F. Morse, Air Corps. He is teaching the Cadets how to send and receive code.
The Tuskegee Airmen were African-American soldiers who trained to become pilots at Tuskegee Army Air Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. The first class of aviation cadets began their training in July 1941 and completed it in March 1942. Tuskegee Airmen went on to serve in combat in North Africa and Italy, and in escorting bombing missions over Germany. This photograph, taken in January 1942, shows cadets at Tuskegee learning how to send and receive code.
Hayward, California, Two Children of the Mochida Family who, with Their Parents, Are Awaiting Evacuation
In 1942, Executive Order 9066 ordered the removal of 110,000 civilians of Japanese descent, including 71,000 American citizens, from the western United States for placement in internment camps. The evacuees were suspected, without evidence, of being potential supporters of Japan, with which the United States was then at war. This photograph, taken by noted photographer Dorothea Lange (1895-1965) for the government agency known as the War Relocation Authority, shows one family waiting to be taken away. Lange’s notes on the photograph read: "Members of the Mochida family ...
Declaration of Intention of Maria von Trapp
Maria von Trapp became a household name in the United States when her story was turned into the 1959 Broadway musical The Sound of Music. She and her family previously had immigrated to the United States from their native Austria following the takeover of the country by Nazi Germany. This Declaration of Intention to become a U.S. citizen, submitted to the U.S. District Court in Burlington, Vermont, on January 21, 1944, sheds light on the real Maria von Trapp.
Get Out! The Indies Must be Liberated
This 1945 recruiting poster by the Dutch artist Nico Broekman shows a Japanese soldier being booted from the island of Bali, and the caption, “Get Out! The Indies Must Be Liberated.” During World War II, Japan occupied the Dutch East Indies in early 1942. After the surrender, a large number of Dutch submarines and some aircraft escaped to Australia and continued to fight as part of Australian units. In the course of the war, Indonesian nationalists supported by the Japanese took over parts of the country. Allied troops invaded Borneo ...
Bathing Room in the Women's Quarter of the Makassarese Village Near Master Cornelis in Batavia
This 1945 photograph shows women and children bathing at the Kampong Makassar internment camp near Batavia (present-day Jakarta) during World War II. After the Dutch East Indies fell to Japanese forces in 1942, many Dutch residents were forced into internment camps, where they stayed until the end of the war. At Kampong Makassar, which operated from January to August 1945, more than 3,600 women and children were held in a space measuring less than one square kilometer. The photograph is from the collections of the KITLV/Royal Netherlands Institute ...